Survey and mechanism of skin depigmenting and lightening agents

@article{Parvez2006SurveyAM,
  title={Survey and mechanism of skin depigmenting and lightening agents},
  author={Shoukat Parvez and Moonkyu Kang and Hwan-Suck Chung and Chongwoon Cho and Moo Chang Hong and Minkyu Shin and Hyunsu Bae},
  journal={Phytotherapy Research},
  year={2006},
  volume={20}
}
The type and amount of melanin synthesized by the melanocyte, and its distribution pattern in the surrounding keratinocytes, determines the actual color of the skin. Melanin forms through a series of oxidative reactions involving the amino acid tyrosine in the presence of the enzyme tyrosinase. 
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Mechanisms and Therapeutic Prospects of Peptides in Skin Pigmentation
TLDR
A novel platform to modulate skin pigmentation is the use of oligopeptides designed with affinity towards the active sites in molecules of the melanogenesis pathway, which can be designed to increase activity, prolong in vivo stability, promote penetration into cells and minimize side effects when compared to the molecules they mimic, or other drugs.
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