Surrogate end points in clinical research: hazardous to your health.

@article{Grimes2005SurrogateEP,
  title={Surrogate end points in clinical research: hazardous to your health.},
  author={David A. Grimes and Kenneth F. Schulz},
  journal={Obstetrics and gynecology},
  year={2005},
  volume={105 5 Pt 1},
  pages={
          1114-8
        }
}
Surrogate end points in clinical research pose real danger. A surrogate end point is an outcome measure, commonly a laboratory test, that substitutes for a clinical event of true importance. Resistance to activated protein C, for example, has been used as a surrogate for venous thrombosis in women using oral contraceptives. Other examples of inappropriate surrogate end points in contraception include the postcoital test instead of pregnancy to evaluate new spermicides, breakage and slippage… Expand
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