Surrogate end points in cancer research: a critique.


Studies using surrogate end points of malignant disease may be smaller, shorter, and less expensive than studies with incident cancer end points. Researchers have proposed a broad range of histological, cellular, and molecular markers as surrogate end points for cancer (SECs). We define a valid SEC as follows: the effect of an intervention on (or the… (More)


4 Figures and Tables

Slides referencing similar topics