Surpassing the lateral resolution limit by a factor of two using structured illumination microscopy

@article{Gustafsson2000SurpassingTL,
  title={Surpassing the lateral resolution limit by a factor of two using structured illumination microscopy},
  author={M. G. L. Gustafsson},
  journal={Journal of Microscopy},
  year={2000},
  volume={198}
}
Lateral resolution that exceeds the classical diffraction limit by a factor of two is achieved by using spatially structured illumination in a wide‐field fluorescence microscope. The sample is illuminated with a series of excitation light patterns, which cause normally inaccessible high‐resolution information to be encoded into the observed image. The recorded images are linearly processed to extract the new information and produce a reconstruction with twice the normal resolution. Unlike… 

Superresolution Multidimensional Imaging with Structured Illumination Microscopy

The resolution of an optical microscope is fundamentally limited by diffraction. In a conventional wide-field fluorescence microscope, the resolution limit is at best 200 nm. However, modern

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This work describes how spatially structured illumination microscopy can be applied in three dimensions to double the axial as well as the lateral resolution, with true optical sectioning, and has produced the first light microscopy images of the synaptonemal complex in which the lateral elements are clearly resolved.

Effects of inhomogeneous fields in superresolving structured-illumination microscopy.

It is shown how the use of high numerical aperture microscope objectives in structured-illumination microscopy can provide relatively high-frequency illumination patterns that can become evanescently decaying and thus becomes inhomogeneous within a microscopically extended sample medium.

Microscopy using randomized speckle illumination

It is well known for structured illumination microscopy (SIM) that the lateral resolution by a factor of two beyond the classical diffraction limit is achieved using spatially structured illumination

Super-resolved spatial light interference microscopy.

By adding a grating to the optical path, the structured illumination technique can be used to improve the resolution by a factor of 2.5 through two crucial modifications, namely, one to the pupil plane of the objective and the other to the demodulation procedure.

Lateral resolution enhancement of confocal microscopy based on structured detection method with spatial light modulator.

This paper introduces a new method to achieve structured detection through using spatial light modulator (SLM) to improve it, and it can be found that coherent transfer function expands and the resolution is 1.6 times as large as that of conventional confocal microscope.

Nonlinear structured-illumination microscopy: wide-field fluorescence imaging with theoretically unlimited resolution.

  • M. Gustafsson
  • Physics
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2005
Experimental results show that a 2D point resolution of <50 nm is possible on sufficiently bright and photostable samples, and a recently proposed method in which the nonlinearity arises from saturation of the excited state is experimentally demonstrated.
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