Surmised state of accommodation to stereoscopic three-dimensional images with binocular disparity.

  title={Surmised state of accommodation to stereoscopic three-dimensional images with binocular disparity.},
  author={Tsuneto Iwasaki and S. Akiya and T. Inoue and Kageyu Noro},
  volume={39 11},
Three-dimensional image (3-D image) was experimentally generated by the binocular disparity principle, and psychological tests were performed in relation to the state of accommodation. An image of a square formed by the time-sharing system using liquid crystal (LC) shutter glasses was displayed before the CRT screen (forward image) by the crossed visual-line method and behind the monitor screen (backward image) by the non-crossed visual-line method. The subjects were requested to subjectively… 
Stereoscopic Displays and Accommodative Focus
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Comparison of Measurement of Accommodation between LCD and CRT at the Stereoscopic Vision Gaze
The results suggested that it was easy and comfortable to focus on both the LCD and CRT, and the ciliary muscle is repeatedly strained and relaxed while the subject views the moving target.
Asthenopia Induced by Viewing 3D Images
Although the three-dimensional (3D) image reproduced by a 3D display is a virtual image, it is displayed just like an actual image in space. 3D images are used for movies, TV broadcasting services,
Influence of three-dimensional image viewing on visual function
Under the conditions of this study, 3D image viewing did not influence visual function, or only very slightly influenced it, if at all, but there are many unknown problems, requiring further surveys using 3Dimage viewing.
Effect of Weak Hyperopia on Stereoscopic Vision
It was confirmed that accommodation and pupil diameter changed synchronously with convergence, suggesting that with naked vision the pupil is constricted and the depth of field deepened, acting like a compensation system for weak accommodation power.
Effects of Long-Time 3D Viewing on the Eye Function of Accommodation and Convergence
The results show that there is essentially no discrepancy in the dynamical behaviors of accommodation and convergence especially for young subjects and that they are hence very close to the case of natural viewing of real 3D objects.
Accommodation, cognition, and virtual image displays: A review of the literature
Visual fatigue and discomfort after stereoscopic display viewing
This work measured and compared visual fatigue and visual discomfort induced by viewing two different stereoscopic displays that either used the pattern retarder‐spatial domain technology with linearly polarized three‐dimensional technology or the circularly polarized three-dimensional technology using shutter glasses.
Accommodative spasm: Case series
This study highlights importance of cycloplegic refraction to detect accommodative spasm(AS) patients and role of atropinisation for its management.This retrospective case series study was done at a


  • H. Leibowitz
  • Computer Science
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 1971
The discussion is confined to size constancy in human beings to illustrate the methods, approaches, results, and problems inherent in this field of research.