Primary Hepatic Gastrinoma Causing Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome: A Rare and Challenging Diagnosis
BACKGROUND Studies demonstrate that liver metastases of gastrinoma significantly reduce survival. METHODS Since 1982 we have prospectively studied 213 patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. For this report the results of surgery for localized liver gastrinoma were analyzed. RESULTS Zollinger-Ellison syndrome was diagnosed biochemically in all patients and acid output was controlled with medications. Imaging studies demonstrated liver gastrinoma in 69 patients (32%). Fifty-two had diffuse unresectable disease, whereas 17 (10%) had localized disease. All patients with localized liver gastrinoma and 2 patients with diffuse disease who needed surgery are the subject of this report. Major hepatic lobectomy was performed in 10 patients and wedge resections in 9. Three patients had apparent liver primary gastrinomas and 16 had metastatic disease. Seventeen of 19 patients were able to have all identifiable gastrinoma resected. Extrahepatic tumor was also removed at the same procedure. Extirpation of liver gastrinoma required hepatic lobectomy in 10 patients and wedge resections in the others. Five-year survival was 85%. Five of 17 completely resected patients (29%) remained disease free. CONCLUSIONS Resectable localized liver gastrinoma is rare. Primary liver gastrinomas can occur. Surgical resection of localized liver gastrinoma provides a cure rate similar to that of extrahepatic gastrinoma and an excellent long-term survival.