Surgical treatment of Parkinson disease: past, present, and future.

Advances in functional neurosurgery have expanded the treatment of Parkinson disease (PD) to targeted electrical stimulation of specific nodes in the basal ganglia circuitry. Deep brain stimulation (DBS), applied to selected patients and difficult-to-manage motor fluctuations, yields substantial reductions in off time and dyskinesia. Emerging concepts in… (More)