Surgical outcomes following nerve transfers in upper brachial plexus injuries

@inproceedings{Bhandari2009SurgicalOF,
  title={Surgical outcomes following nerve transfers in upper brachial plexus injuries},
  author={Prem Singh Bhandari and L. P. Sadhotra and Pranshu Bhargava and Alasdair Bath and Mrinal Kanti Mukherjee and Tejinder Bhatti and Sanjay Maurya},
  booktitle={Indian journal of plastic surgery : official publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India},
  year={2009}
}
BACKGROUND Brachial plexus injuries represent devastating injuries with a poor prognosis. Neurolysis, nerve repair, nerve grafts, nerve transfer, functioning free-muscle transfer and pedicle muscle transfer are the main surgical procedures for treating these injuries. Among these, nerve transfer or neurotization is mainly indicated in root avulsion injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS We analysed the results of various neurotization techniques in 20 patients (age group 20-41 years, mean 25.7 years… CONTINUE READING

Connections & Topics

Mentioned Connections BETA
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
In 11 patients , axillary nerve was also neurotized using different donors - radial nerve branch to the long head triceps ( 7 patients ) , intercostal nerves ( 2 patients ) , and phrenic nerve with nerve graft ( 2 patients ) .
In 11 patients , axillary nerve was also neurotized using different donors - radial nerve branch to the long head triceps ( 7 patients ) , intercostal nerves ( 2 patients ) , and phrenic nerve with nerve graft ( 2 patients ) .
In 11 patients , axillary nerve was also neurotized using different donors - radial nerve branch to the long head triceps ( 7 patients ) , intercostal nerves ( 2 patients ) , and phrenic nerve with nerve graft ( 2 patients ) .
In 11 patients , axillary nerve was also neurotized using different donors - radial nerve branch to the long head triceps ( 7 patients ) , intercostal nerves ( 2 patients ) , and phrenic nerve with nerve graft ( 2 patients ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Shoulder functions were restored by transfer of spinal accessory nerve to suprascapular nerve ( 19 patients ) , and phrenic nerve to suprascapular nerve ( 1 patient ) .
Shoulder functions were restored by transfer of spinal accessory nerve to suprascapular nerve ( 19 patients ) , and phrenic nerve to suprascapular nerve ( 1 patient ) .
Shoulder functions were restored by transfer of spinal accessory nerve to suprascapular nerve ( 19 patients ) , and phrenic nerve to suprascapular nerve ( 1 patient ) .
Shoulder functions were restored by transfer of spinal accessory nerve to suprascapular nerve ( 19 patients ) , and phrenic nerve to suprascapular nerve ( 1 patient ) .
In 11 patients , axillary nerve was also neurotized using different donors - radial nerve branch to the long head triceps ( 7 patients ) , intercostal nerves ( 2 patients ) , and phrenic nerve with nerve graft ( 2 patients ) .
In 11 patients , axillary nerve was also neurotized using different donors - radial nerve branch to the long head triceps ( 7 patients ) , intercostal nerves ( 2 patients ) , and phrenic nerve with nerve graft ( 2 patients ) .
In 11 patients , axillary nerve was also neurotized using different donors - radial nerve branch to the long head triceps ( 7 patients ) , intercostal nerves ( 2 patients ) , and phrenic nerve with nerve graft ( 2 patients ) .
In 11 patients , axillary nerve was also neurotized using different donors - radial nerve branch to the long head triceps ( 7 patients ) , intercostal nerves ( 2 patients ) , and phrenic nerve with nerve graft ( 2 patients ) .
In 11 patients , axillary nerve was also neurotized using different donors - radial nerve branch to the long head triceps ( 7 patients ) , intercostal nerves ( 2 patients ) , and phrenic nerve with nerve graft ( 2 patients ) .
In 11 patients , axillary nerve was also neurotized using different donors - radial nerve branch to the long head triceps ( 7 patients ) , intercostal nerves ( 2 patients ) , and phrenic nerve with nerve graft ( 2 patients ) .
In 11 patients , axillary nerve was also neurotized using different donors - radial nerve branch to the long head triceps ( 7 patients ) , intercostal nerves ( 2 patients ) , and phrenic nerve with nerve graft ( 2 patients ) .
In 11 patients , axillary nerve was also neurotized using different donors - radial nerve branch to the long head triceps ( 7 patients ) , intercostal nerves ( 2 patients ) , and phrenic nerve with nerve graft ( 2 patients ) .
In 11 patients , axillary nerve was also neurotized using different donors - radial nerve branch to the long head triceps ( 7 patients ) , intercostal nerves ( 2 patients ) , and phrenic nerve with nerve graft ( 2 patients ) .
In 11 patients , axillary nerve was also neurotized using different donors - radial nerve branch to the long head triceps ( 7 patients ) , intercostal nerves ( 2 patients ) , and phrenic nerve with nerve graft ( 2 patients ) .
In 11 patients , axillary nerve was also neurotized using different donors - radial nerve branch to the long head triceps ( 7 patients ) , intercostal nerves ( 2 patients ) , and phrenic nerve with nerve graft ( 2 patients ) .
In 11 patients , axillary nerve was also neurotized using different donors - radial nerve branch to the long head triceps ( 7 patients ) , intercostal nerves ( 2 patients ) , and phrenic nerve with nerve graft ( 2 patients ) .
In 11 patients , axillary nerve was also neurotized using different donors - radial nerve branch to the long head triceps ( 7 patients ) , intercostal nerves ( 2 patients ) , and phrenic nerve with nerve graft ( 2 patients ) .
In 11 patients , axillary nerve was also neurotized using different donors - radial nerve branch to the long head triceps ( 7 patients ) , intercostal nerves ( 2 patients ) , and phrenic nerve with nerve graft ( 2 patients ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
Elbow flexion was restored by transfer of ulnar nerve motor fascicle to the motor branch of biceps ( 4 patients ) , both ulnar and median nerve motor fascicles to the biceps and brachialis motor nerves ( 10 patients ) , spinal accessory nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening sural nerve graft ( 1 patient ) , intercostal nerves ( 3rd , 4th and 5th ) to musculocutaneous nerve ( 4 patients ) and phrenic nerve to musculocutaneous nerve with an intervening graft ( 1 patient ) .
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