Surgical management of grades III and IV primary vesicoureteral reflux in children with and without acute pyelonephritis as breakthrough infections: a comparative analysis.


PURPOSE Although high grade vesicoureteral reflux associated with breakthrough infection may be an indication for surgical intervention, it remains uncertain whether acute pyelonephritis as breakthrough infection is a risk for renal scar formation and whether surgery performed without it has any advantage. We assessed the results of antireflux surgery for… (More)


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