198 operations of carpal tunnel syndrome demonstrated that the simple dissection of the ligamentum carpi transversum is followed by excellent results. One year after the operation among the hands with thenar muscle atrophy 82% returned to normal and 11% were improved. Among the cases with preoperative complete loss of function (axonotmesis) of the power grade 5 postoperatively. The capacity for regeneration is not different between the motor and the sensory fibers of the nerve. The restoration of the muscle power depends on the grade of the muscle fibrosis after long denervation. The comparison with the results of other authors demonstrates no advantage of the additional interfascicular neurolysis.