Surgeons Who Contributed to the Enlightenment of Japanese Medicine

  title={Surgeons Who Contributed to the Enlightenment of Japanese Medicine},
  author={Sumiko Hiki},
  journal={World Journal of Surgery},
Until the sixteenth century internal medicine, primarily Chinese medicine, had been predominant in Japan. From 1639, under the national seclusion policy of the Tokugawa Shogunate, Japan's doors were closed to the West; and Japan had no trade relations with any countries except China and Holland. Only in Nagasaki, where a Dutch settlement was located, were Japanese able to learn about Western culture and Western medicine. Through the medical education and services provided by Philipp Franz von… CONTINUE READING