Surface spectroscopy with high spatial resolution using metastable atoms

@article{Harada1994SurfaceSW,
  title={Surface spectroscopy with high spatial resolution using metastable atoms},
  author={Yoshiya Harada and S. Yamamoto and Masaru Aoki and Shigeru Masuda and Takeo Ichinokawa and M. Kato and Yuji Sakai},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1994},
  volume={372},
  pages={657-659}
}
THE study of surface phenomena is in large part dependent on spectroscopic techniques that are sensitive to only the outermost few layers of the material under consideration. A variety of such techniques are now available, some of which also have the benefit of high spatial resolution1–3. Here we show that metastable atoms—that is, atoms in long-lived excited states—can be used as a sensitive surface probe with high spatial resolution. In contrast to electrons or photons, metastable atoms… Expand
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