Surface codes: Towards practical large-scale quantum computation

@article{Fowler2012SurfaceCT,
  title={Surface codes: Towards practical large-scale quantum computation},
  author={Austin G. Fowler and M. Mariantoni and John M. Martinis and Andrew N. Cleland},
  journal={Physical Review A},
  year={2012},
  volume={86},
  pages={032324}
}
This article provides an introduction to surface code quantum computing. We first estimate the size and speed of a surface code quantum computer. We then introduce the concept of the stabilizer, using two qubits, and extend this concept to stabilizers acting on a two-dimensional array of physical qubits, on which we implement the surface code. We next describe how logical qubits are formed in the surface code array and give numerical estimates of their fault-tolerance. We outline how logical… 
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