The neuropeptide Substance P (SP), that has a high affinity for the neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor, is involved in modulation of pain transmission. Although SP is thought to have excitatory actions and promote nociception in the spinal cord, the peptide induces analgesia at the supraspinal level. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of supraspinal SP and the NK1 receptor in inflammatory pain induced by injection of carrageenan in the hind paw of the rat. There are two nociceptive behavioral responses associated with this pain state: mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia. Because the NK1 receptor colocalizes with the MOP receptor in supraspinal sites involved in pain modulation, we also decided to study the possible involvement of the opioid system on SP-induced analgesia. We found that treatment with SP, at doses of 3.5, 5 and 7 μg/5 μl/rat i.c.v., clearly showed inhibition of allodynia and hyperalgesia. Pretreatment with the selective NK1 antagonist L-733,060 (10mg/kg i.p.) blocked the SP-induced analgesia, suggesting the involvement of the NK1 receptor. This SP-induced analgesia was significantly reduced by administration of the opioid antagonist naloxone (3mg/kg s.c.). This reduction occurred when SP was administered either before or after the carrageenan injection. These results suggest a significant antinociceptive role for SP and the NK1 receptor in inflammatory pain at the supraspinal level, possibly through the release of endogenous opioids.