Supraorbital ridge and masticatory apparatus I: Primates

  title={Supraorbital ridge and masticatory apparatus I: Primates},
  author={Rumy A. Hilloowala and R. B. Trent},
  journal={Human Evolution},
The supraorbital ridge formation in apes is a result of the traction of the masticatory force exerted by the anterior part of the temporalis muscle. This force varies inversely with the ratio of the power arm to the load arm of the mandible. The smaller this ratio, the greater the anterior part of the temporalis muscle and the larger the supraorbital ridge. The size of the ridge is independent of the actual size of the skull. The orang has a larger skull but the smallest brow ridge of the three… 
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Masticatory loading and bone adaptation in the supraorbital torus of developing macaques.

This work develops three micro-CT-based FEA models of M. fascicularis skulls ranging in dental age from deciduous to permanent dentitions and validated them against published experimental data to evaluate the hypothesis that strain energy density (SED) magnitudes are high in subadult individuals with resulting bone growth in the supraorbital torus.

Masticatory stress, orbital orientation and the evolution of the primate postorbital bar.

The visual predation hypothesis of primate origins is reformulate by incorporating in vivo and fossil data and thus offers new insights into major adaptive transformations in the primate skull.

Morphometric testing of structural hypotheses of the supraorbital region in modern humans.

Correlational support for both the craniofacial size and spatial hypotheses suggests multiple factors influence variation in the modern human supraorbital region, suggesting a single hypothesis cannot fully account for modern human variation in this region.

Strain in the Galago facial skull

Although the strain‐direction data for the galago circumorbital region offer support for the occurrence of facial torsion, the low magnitude of these strains suggests that this loading pattern may not be an important determinant of circumorbitals morphology.

The mandible — a measure of the nasopharynx

This investigation aims to ascertain the statistically significant correlation between the individual dimensions of the pharynx and those of the mandible, a bone most commonly found in

Proposed cephalometric diagnosis for osteogenic obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): the mandibular/pharyngeal ratio.

The possible presence of an osteogenic etiology of OSA can be determined by comparison of the mandibular/pharyngeal ratio obtained from the skull cephalograms to that of the individual patient.

Interrelationships of brain, cranial base and mandible.

Results indicate that the cranial base, posterior to the foramen caecum, develops in response to brain growth, and the glabella instead of the nasion should be considered as the most anterior point of the Cranial base.



Craniofacial growth in olive baboons (Papio cynocephalus anubis): browridge formation.

It is suggested that browridge bone is added during periods of peak stress caused by the positive response of the masticatory muscles to relatively sudden reduction of their biomechanical efficiency.

Structure of bone in the skulls of Neanderthal fossils.

  • N. Tappen
  • Geography
    American journal of physical anthropology
  • 1973
Close inspection of surface bone in skulls of Neanderthal man reveals weathering cracks extensive enough in one specimen, La Chapelle-aux-Saints, to allow preliminary analysis of major patterns of

The vermiculate surface pattern of brow ridges in Neandertal and modern crania.

  • N. Tappen
  • Medicine
    American journal of physical anthropology
  • 1978
Structural characteristics of the bone give evidence on the problem of the function of hominid brow ridges in adult Neandertal fossils.

Browridge structure and function in extant primates and Neanderthals

The structural characteristics of the supraorbital ridge in three extent primate species and fossil Neanderthals are described and periods of rapid appositional growth of the browridges by means of fine cancellous bone formation are temporally correlated with dental development and eruption sequences.

The human mandible: lever or link?

  • W. Hylander
  • Biology
    American journal of physical anthropology
  • 1975
A review of the electromyographic data and of the properties of the tissues of the temporomandibular joint do not support the non-lever hypothesis of mandibular function, and an analysis of the strength of the condylar neck demonstrates that this structure is strong enough to withstand the expected reaction force during lever action.

Distribution of Stress and Strain Produced in the Human Facial Skeleton by the Masticatory Force

In an attempt to make analysis of stress and strain on the human facial skeleton due to chewing force, a series of experiments were carried out on dry skulls reproducing the mastication, Brief

A comparative study of cranial growth in Homo and Macaca.

The growth changes that characterize the brain case of the monkey were compared and contrasted with those in Homo and several marked differences were also found.

Evolution of the supraorbital region in Upper Pleistocene fossil hominids from South‐Central Europe

South-Central European fossil hominids dated to the Upper Pleistocene exhibit a distinct morphological and metric continuum in supraorbital form from early Neandertal (Krapina), through late

The human mandible: lever, link, or both?

  • P. Gingerich
  • Biology, Art
    American journal of physical anthropology
  • 1979
Reexamination of Hylander's data suggests that the mandible cannot function purely as a lever either, and in fact it probably functions simultaneously as both lever and link during incisal biting.

The neurocranial basis for facial form and pattern.

This work presents a probabilistic analysis of the immune response to the presence of smallpox in mice and shows clear patterns of decline in the number of immune-related organ transplants and in the proportion of animals that receive chemotherapy.