Renal osteodystrophy in part due to secondary hyperparathyroidism, is one of the major unresolved problems affecting patients on chronic hemodialysis. In addition, evidence has shown that parathyroid hormone (PTH) is toxic to other organ systems besides bone. The results of a prospective study on the effect of propranolol in reducing PTH levels in chronic renal failure patients on hemodialysis are reported. Propranolol administration reduced PTH levels by over 50-75%. The levels of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and hematocrit were variable, but patients with severe derangements in these measurements also seemed to benefit from propranolol. It should now be determined by larger and longer studies whether these biochemical improvements can be translated into clinical benefits.