Recent Advances and Uses of Grape Flavonoids as Nutraceuticals
Grape pomace is generated in the production process of wine and grape juices and is an industrial waste. This study investigated whether an intake of grape pomace was able to suppress chronic inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and galactosamine (GalN) in vivo. When Sprague-Dawley rats were orally given methanolic extracts from red and white grape pomace, the extracts inhibited the LPS/GalN-evoked activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) dose-dependently, and red grape pomace exerted a stronger effect than white grape one. Next, rats were fed an AIN93 M-based diet containing 5% red grape pomace for 7 days, followed by the intraperitoneal injection of LPS and GalN. The intake of the red grape pomace-supplemented diet was found to suppress the LPS/GalN-induced activation of NF-κB and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 proteins. These results suggest that red grape pomace may contain an abundance of effective compound(s) for anti-inflammatory action.