This investigation was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous and hexane extracts of Sideritis javalambrensis, to which pharmacological properties have been attributed in Spanish traditional medicine. The extracts were applied as eye drops in a croton oil-induced corneal edema model in rabbits. Corneal thickness was estimated before the induction of inflammation and 3, 6, 8, 12, 48, 72 and 96 h after induction. Significant inflammation inhibition percentages were shown during both the acute and chronic stages of inflammation by both extracts and by the reference drug dexamethasone, with most therapeutic effect shown during the chronic phase. However, the hexane extract exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity from 6 to 24 h post-induction, achieving greater percentage inhibition values during this stage than those obtained for dexamethasone.