Supersonic sauropods? Tail dynamics in the diplodocids

@article{Myhrvold1997SupersonicST,
  title={Supersonic sauropods? Tail dynamics in the diplodocids},
  author={Nathan P Myhrvold and Philip J. Currie},
  journal={Paleobiology},
  year={1997},
  volume={23},
  pages={393 - 409}
}
Computer models of the tail of Apatosaurus louisae show it could reach supersonic velocities, producing a noise analogous to the “crack” of a bullwhip. Similarity in tail structure suggests this was feasible for other diplodocids, and possibly for unrelated sauropods like Mamenchisaurus and the dicraeosaurids. Lengthening of caudal vertebrae centra between positions 18 and 25 is consistent with adaptation to the stresses generated by such tail motion, as is coossification of vertebrae via… 

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