Supersonic sauropods? Tail dynamics in the diplodocids

  title={Supersonic sauropods? Tail dynamics in the diplodocids},
  author={Nathan P Myhrvold and Philip J. Currie},
  pages={393 - 409}
Computer models of the tail of Apatosaurus louisae show it could reach supersonic velocities, producing a noise analogous to the “crack” of a bullwhip. Similarity in tail structure suggests this was feasible for other diplodocids, and possibly for unrelated sauropods like Mamenchisaurus and the dicraeosaurids. Lengthening of caudal vertebrae centra between positions 18 and 25 is consistent with adaptation to the stresses generated by such tail motion, as is coossification of vertebrae via… 

Tactile tails: a new hypothesis for the function of the elongate tails of diplodocid sauropods

  • M. Baron
  • Environmental Science
    Historical Biology
  • 2020
ABSTRACT Tail elongation is a trait common to many sauropod dinosaurs. In certain members of Diplodocidae, for example, the total caudal vertebrae count is as high as 70 to 80 bones, making a total

Defense capabilities of Kentrosaurus aethiopicus Hennig , 1915

Prescribed motion models based on a CAD range of motion analysis of Kentrosaurus and motions observed in extant long-tailed reptiles give results consistent with those of models using torque values calculated from detailed CAD reconstruction of muscle cross sections and moment arms.

"Bizarre Structures" Point to Dromaeosaurs as Parasites and a New Theory for the Origin of Avian Flight.

It is proposed that bizarre structures may have served to defend against parasitic dorsal attacks from riding dromaeosaurs, and Frequent dismounts from large living dinosaurs may explain the origin of feathers, gliding and avian flight.

Investigating the enigmatic Aeolosaurini clade: the caudal biomechanics of Aeolosaurus maximus (Aeolosaurini/Sauropoda) using the neutral pose method and the first case of protonic tail condition in Sauropoda

ABSTRACT The neck posture and function in sauropods have been widely studied during the last decades. The cartilaginous neutral pose (CNP) method is commonly used in biomechanical reconstructions by

Dinosaur biomechanics

  • R. M. Alexander
  • Environmental Science
    Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • 2006
Biomechanics has made large contributions to dinosaur biology, and techniques such as computational tomography and finite element analysis, and advances in computer modelling, have brought new opportunities.

1. Overview of Sauropod Phylogeny and Evolution

This year marks the one hundred sixty-fourth anniversary of Richard Owen’s (1841) description of the first sauropod—Cetiosaurus, the “whale lizard”—on the basis of vertebrae and limb elements from

The Articulation of Sauropod Necks: Methodology and Mythology

Osteologically, the pronounced opisthocoely and conformal central and zygapophyseal articular surfaces strongly constrain the reconstruction of the cervical vertebral column; Behaviorally, modern vertebrates generally assume characteristic neck postures which are close to the intrinsic curvature of the undeflected neck.

Using crocodilian tails as models for dinosaur tails

The results show that, given the current limited knowledge of crocodilian tails, volumetric reconstructions should be created on the basis of more gross morphological data than is usually used, and that biomechanical studies should include sensitivity analysis with greater parameter ranges than often applied.

The socio-sexual behaviour of extant archosaurs: implications for understanding dinosaur behaviour

  • T. Isles
  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • 2009
It is proposed that for the majority of dinosaurs there was no post-hatching care provided which would have allowed adults energy acquisition that would otherwise have been required for defence and provisioning to be redirected towards growth and increased fecundity, both traits for which there is fossil evidence.



The discovery of the bony tail club of sauropods

Spindle-shaped bony tail clubs formed by fusion and inflation of caudal vertebrae were found in Shunosaurus lii and Omeisaurus tianfuensis from the Dashanpu dinosaur site in Zigong. This is the first

Fusion of caudal vertebrae in Late Jurassic sauropods

It is concluded that the fusion of caudal vertebrae in Camarasaurus is the result of the physiological phenomenon called diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) and therefore is not a pathological response or due to a physical injury.

Sauropod habits and habitats

  • W. Coombs
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 1975

Diplodocus (Marsh): its osteology, taxonomy, and probable habits, with a restoration of the skeleton

  • J. B. Hatcher
  • Environmental Science
    Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum
  • 1901
The bringing together of a fairly representative collection of fossil vertebrates is a work not only entailing the expei:iditnre of considerable sums of money, but one -which also calls for no little

Mechanics of posture and gait of some large dinosaurs

The positions of dinosaurs' centres of mass, derived from models, show that some large quadrupedal dinosaurs supported most of their weight on their hind legs and were probably capable of rearing up on their hinder legs.

Seismosaurus halli, gen. et sp. nov., a new sauropod dinosaur from the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous) of New Mexico, USA

ABSTRACT Seismosaurus halli, gen. et sp. nov. (Sauropoda, Diplodocidae) is a new large sauropod from the Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous) of central New

Speeds and gaits of dinosaurs

North America's largest dinosaur trackway site: Implications for Morrison Formation paleoecology

Little-known exposures of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation from the Purgatoire Valley of southeastern Colorado have yielded the world's largest continuously mapped assemblage of dinosaur

Discovery of dermal spines reveals a new look for sauropod dinosaurs

The smooth, quasi-elephantine form of the huge, long-necked sauropods is a familiar image widely repeated in both scientific and general literature. Recent discovery of fossilized sauropod

A large mamenchisaurid from the Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, People's Republic of China

An articulated neck of a large, mature sauropod, with enormously elongated cervical ribs, was discovered in strata of Late Jurassic age in the eastern Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, People's Republic of