Superposition images are formed by reflection in the eyes of some oceanic decapod Crustacea

@article{Land1976SuperpositionIA,
  title={Superposition images are formed by reflection in the eyes of some oceanic decapod Crustacea},
  author={Michael Francis Land},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1976},
  volume={263},
  pages={764-765}
}
  • M. Land
  • Published 28 October 1976
  • Physics
  • Nature
LIKE moths, the eyes of many pelagic and bottom-living decapods appear to glow brightly when viewed from the direction of illumination1. It has generally been assumed that the optical system involved is similar to that in nocturnal insects, that is, the superposition mechanism of Exner2. The essential feature of Exner's theory is that the optical apparatus of the cornea and crystalline cone refracts light through twice the angle at which it was incident on the cornea (Fig. 1a). Light from many… 

The optical geometry of euphausiid eyes

Summary1.Euphausiid eyes have all the features of classical refracting superposition eyes. The crystalline cones, which resemble those of moths very closely, are hard, circular in cross section and

Light guides in the dorsal eye of the male mayfly

The square cones and yellow screening pigment strongly suggest that there is superposition by reflexion of yellow light that spreads between ommatidia across the clear zone and the dorsal eye is effectively a foveal region with greater sampling density and narrower receptive fields but less overlap of fields than the lateral eye.

Eye Structure and Optics in the Pelagic Shrimp Acetes Sibogae (Decapoda, Natantia Sergestidae) In Relation to Light--Dark Adaption and Natural History

The structure and optics of the compound eyes of the neritic sergestid shrimp, Acetes sibogae, are described, indicating that the eye operates by the recently recognized mechanism of reflecting superposition.

Geometrical optics of a galatheid compound eye

  • E. Gaten
  • Physics
    Journal of Comparative Physiology A
  • 2004
The eyes of galatheid squat lobsters (Munida rugosa) are shown to be of the reflecting superposition type, and developing ommatidia are retained specifically for scanning the downwelling irradiance.

The dorsal eye of the mayfly Atalophlebia (Ephemeroptera)

  • G. HorridgeM. McLean
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences
  • 1978
The dorsal eye of Atalophlebia has two unusual features, the sensitivity only to ultraviolet (u. v.) light, and the candelabra-shaped rhabdom, which indicates that a superposition image cannot be formed by u. v. light.

From cornea to retinal image in invertebrate eyes

Isoxanthopterin: An Optically Functional Biogenic Crystal in the Eyes of Decapod Crustaceans

It is shown that crystals of isoxanthopterin, a pteridine analogue of guanine, form both the image-forming ‘distal’ mirror and the intensity-enhancing tapetum reflector in the compound eyes of some decapod crustaceans.

Evolutionary links between apposition and superposition optics in crustacean eyes

It is reported that the planktonic larvae of most euphausiids and decapods possess a transparent type of apposition eye that is pre-adapted for superposition optics, suggesting that the evolution of superposition eyes in crustaceans has its origin in the special apposition optics found in the larval eyes, thus providing the first evidence of an evolutionary link between apposition andsuperposition optics.

Characterization and possible function of an enigmatic reflector in the eye of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

It is concluded that the proximal reflective layer of the shrimp L. vannamei likely functions as a camouflage device to conceal the dark eye pigments in an otherwise largely transparent animal.
...

References

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Physiological Optics, Crustacean Superposition Eye Histological and optical observations in the eye of crayfish lead to a new hypothesis of the superposition ray path in this eye. Rays from an object

Light, and photoreceptor degeneration in the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus (L.)

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    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences
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It is suggested that this effect of light is a consequence of the rapid build-up of photoproduct in a species having a low regeneration rate of the visual pigment, and that this type of degeneration might be induced in other ‘dim light’ species that may also have low rates of pigment regeneration.

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