Superiority of variable to repeated practice in transfer on anagram solution

@article{Goode2008SuperiorityOV,
  title={Superiority of variable to repeated practice in transfer on anagram solution},
  author={Michael K. Goode and Lisa Geraci and Henry L. Roediger},
  journal={Psychonomic Bulletin \& Review},
  year={2008},
  volume={15},
  pages={662-666}
}
Previous research in motor learning shows that practicing variations of a task (variable practice) leads to better transfer than does repeatedly practicing the exact same task (repeated practice). In contrast, research on priming using verbal materials shows that performance on a test improves to the extent that the material at learning and test overlap. We tested whether variability in practice conditions can lead to improved performance with the verbal priming task of anagram solution… 
Learning Versus Performance
TLDR
This work reviews the extant literature in the motor- and verbal-learning domains that necessitates the distinction between learning and performance and examines research in metacognition that suggests that people often mistakenly interpret their performance during acquisition as a reliable guide to long-term learning.
Repeated testing produces superior transfer of learning relative to repeated studying.
  • A. C. Butler
  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition
  • 2010
TLDR
Repeated testing produced superior retention and transfer on the final test relative to repeated studying, indicating that the mnemonic benefits of test-enhanced learning are not limited to the retention of the specific response tested during initial learning but rather extend to the transfer of knowledge in a variety of contexts.
Contextual interference effects in sequence learning for young and older adults.
TLDR
The results replicate the CI effect in sequence learning in both young and older adults, and underscores the distinction between age-related effects on learning vs. performance, and offers practical implications for enhancing skill learning in older adults.
Does test-enhanced learning transfer for triple associates?
TLDR
Cross-experiment analyses indicated that test-enhanced learning is not diminished when two or three cue combinations are presented during training, and testing on all possible stimulus–response combinations remains the most efficient strategy for the learning of triple associates.
Transfer of Test-Enhanced Learning: Meta-Analytic Review and Synthesis
TLDR
The findings of the first comprehensive meta-analytic review into testing yield learning that transfers to different contexts motivate a three-factor framework for transfer of test-enhanced learning and have practical implications for the effective use of practice testing in educational and other training contexts.
Training on Perceptual-Motor Tasks Using Simulated Construction Equipment
A prior study addressed whether practicing on both an excavator and a loader result in poorer learning of excavator operation than practicing solely on the excavator. Performance of a controls
Effects of difficulty, specificity, and variability on training to follow navigation instructions
TLDR
The results support the advantages of both specificity and variability of training but do not support the hypothesis that difficult training of the form used here would lead to overall best performance at test.
Retrieving and Applying Knowledge to Different Examples Promotes Transfer of Learning
TLDR
It is suggested that repeatedly retrieving and applying knowledge to different examples is a powerful method for acquiring knowledge that will transfer to a variety of new contexts.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 24 REFERENCES
Practice schedules and the use of component skills in problem solving
In motor and verbal learning, random practice schedules produce poorer acquisition performance but superior retention relative to blocked practice. We extend this contextual interference effect to
Composition of practice: influence on the retention of motor skills.
  • C. Shea, R. Kohl
  • Psychology
    Research quarterly for exercise and sport
  • 1991
TLDR
The results were consistent with the elaboration perspective proposed by Shea and Zimny (1983), which proposes that the simultaneous presence of related items in working memory facilitates interitem elaborative and distinctive processing that ultimately results in retention benefits.
Influence of practice schedule on testing schema theory predictions in adults.
TLDR
Results for variable error and absolute constant error showed that random- variable practice provided strong support for the schema theory prediction, whereas blocked-variable practice provided only relatively weak support.
Specific and Varied Practice of Motor Skill
TLDR
It was suggested that a varied practice schedule may facilitate the initial formation of motor schema, and this process may be enhanced by participation in a physical education program.
Variability in practice: facilitation in retention and transfer through schema formation or context effects?
TLDR
On a retention test performed on a task version that had been practiced by both groups before as well as on a transfer test with the same phasing pattern but a longer absolute duration, the Schema group performed more effectively than the Context group, thus supporting schema theory.
Specificity and variability of practice.
  • C. Shea, R. Kohl
  • Psychology
    Research quarterly for exercise and sport
  • 1990
TLDR
It is indicated that acquisition practice with variations of the criterion task leads to better retention than practice on the criteriontask alone, contrary to a strict interpretation of the specificity of learning principle.
New Conceptualizations of Practice: Common Principles in Three Paradigms Suggest New Concepts for Training
We argue herein that typical training procedures are far from optimal. The goat of training in real-world settings is, or should be, to support two aspects of posttraining performance: (a) the level
Variable practice with lenses improves visuo-motor plasticity.
A schema theory of discrete motor skill learning.
A number of closed-loop postulations to explain motor skills learning and performance phenomena have appeared recently, but each of these views suffers from either (a) logical problems in explaining
...
...