Superior detection of threat-relevant stimuli in infancy.

@article{Lobue2010SuperiorDO,
  title={Superior detection of threat-relevant stimuli in infancy.},
  author={Vanessa Lobue and Judy S Deloache},
  journal={Developmental science},
  year={2010},
  volume={13 1},
  pages={
          221-8
        }
}
The ability to quickly detect potential threat is an important survival mechanism for humans and other animals. Past research has established that adults have an attentional bias for the detection of threat-relevant stimuli, including snakes and spiders as well as angry human faces. Recent studies have documented that preschool children also detect the presence of threatening stimuli more quickly than various non-threatening stimuli. Here we report the first evidence that this attentional bias… 

Figures and Topics from this paper

Rapid detection of snakes modulates spatial orienting in infancy
Recent evidence for an evolved fear module in the brain comes from studies showing that adults, children and infants detect evolutionarily threatening stimuli such as snakes faster than
Developmental Differences in Infants' Attention to Social and Nonsocial Threats.
TLDR
Examination of developmental differences in infants' attention to social (angry faces) and nonsocial (snakes) threats using a new age-appropriate dot-probe task suggests that different developmental mechanisms may be responsible for attentional biases for social vs. nonsocial threats.
Deconstructing the snake: the relative roles of perception, cognition, and emotion on threat detection.
TLDR
In 3 experiments, the unique and interacting roles of low-level perceptual cues, cognitive factors such as threatening labels, and emotional state to rapid threat detection are examined, suggesting that rapid threat Detection can result from several individual and interacting factors, including perceptual, cognitive, andotional.
Acquiring fear and threat related attentional biases through informational learning
Research has found that threat related attentional biases towards novel animals can be induced in children by giving threat information about the animals. Naturally occurring (i.e. non-induced)
What's so scary about needles and knives? Examining the role of experience in threat detection
Snakes and spiders constitute a category of evolutionarily relevant stimuli that were recurrent and widespread threats to survival throughout human evolution. A large body of research has suggests
And along came a spider: an attentional bias for the detection of spiders in young children and adults.
  • Vanessa Lobue
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of experimental child psychology
  • 2010
TLDR
Both children and adults detected the presence of spiders more rapidly than both categories of distracter stimuli and there was no difference between the detection of two neutral stimuli (cockroaches vs. mushrooms).
Venom, speed, and caution: effects on performance in a visual search task
Previous reports of faster responses to threatening compared to benign stimuli in visual search tasks have argued that threatening targets are faster to engage and slower to disengage attention than
Superior colliculus lesions impair threat responsiveness in infant capuchin monkeys
TLDR
It is shown that bilateral neurotoxic lesions of the superior colliculus in infant capuchins monkeys impaired the recognition of a rubber-snake in a threat-reward conflict task and was similar to the tameness aspects of Kluver-Bucy syndrome.
Of hissing snakes and angry voices: human infants are differentially responsive to evolutionary fear-relevant sounds.
TLDR
Novel data is shown for the first time that human infants differentially process evolutionary threats presented in the auditory modality, showing significantly enhanced heart rate deceleration, larger eye-blinks, and more visual orienting when listening to evolutionary fear-relevant sounds compared to sounds from the other two categories.
A role for the superior colliculus in the modulation of threat responsiveness in primates: toward the ontogenesis of the social brain
TLDR
It is argued that, although the primate superior colliculus may participate in both systems, its role is more prominent in the detection/recognition of threat.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 50 REFERENCES
More than just another face in the crowd: superior detection of threatening facial expressions in children and adults.
TLDR
First evidence that young children exhibit the same superior detection of threatening facial expressions as adults is presented, providing important support for the existence of an evolved attentional bias for threatening stimuli.
Detecting the Snake in the Grass
TLDR
Evidence is reported of enhanced visual detection of evolutionarily relevant threat stimuli in young children using an array of eight distractors to detect snakes in the presence of other kinds of visual stimuli.
The face in the crowd revisited: a threat advantage with schematic stimuli.
TLDR
Threatening angry faces were more quickly and accurately detected than were other negative faces (sad or "scheming"), which suggests that the threat advantage can be attributed to threat rather than to the negative valence or the uniqueness of the target display.
Angry faces get noticed quickly: threat detection is not impaired among older adults.
  • M. Mather, Marisa Knight
  • Medicine, Psychology
    The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences
  • 2006
TLDR
There was no age difference in this threat-detection advantage, indicating that this automatic process is maintained among older adults.
Do infants possess an evolved spider-detection mechanism?
TLDR
The results supported the hypothesis that humans, like other species, may possess a cognitive mechanism for detecting specific animals that were potentially harmful throughout evolutionary history.
Snakes, spiders, guns, and syringes: How specific are evolutionary constraints on the detection of threatening stimuli?
  • I. Blanchette
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Quarterly journal of experimental psychology
  • 2006
TLDR
In three experiments, the efficiency in detecting fear-relevant and fear-irrelevant visual stimuli are compared and the threat-superiority effect was repeatedly found for both types of target.
Emotion drives attention: detecting the snake in the grass.
TLDR
Fear-relevant, but not fear-irrelevant, search was unaffected by the location of the target in the display and by the number of distractors, which suggests parallel search for fear-relevant targets and serial search for feared objects.
Visual search with biological threat stimuli: accuracy, reaction times, and heart rate changes.
  • A. Flykt
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Emotion
  • 2005
TLDR
A visual search task of deciding whether all the pictures in 3 x 3 search arrays contained a target picture from a deviant category, and heart rate was measured suggests that controlled processing of the task operates together with automatic processing.
Snakes and cats in the flower bed: fast detection is not specific to pictures of fear-relevant animals.
The observation that snakes and spiders are found faster among flowers and mushrooms than vice versa and that this search advantage is independent of set size supports the notion that fear-relevant
The role of fear-relevant stimuli in visual search: a comparison of phylogenetic and ontogenetic stimuli.
TLDR
It seems that fear relevance in general is more important than is the evolutionary age, and attention toward threatening stimuli is mainly affected by a late component that prolongs the disengagement of attention.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...