Super-Earths and Sub-Neptunes Are Insensitive to Stellar Metallicity

@article{Kutra2021SuperEarthsAS,
  title={Super-Earths and Sub-Neptunes Are Insensitive to Stellar Metallicity},
  author={Taylor Kutra and Yanqin Wu and Yansong Qian},
  journal={The Astronomical Journal},
  year={2021},
  volume={162}
}
Kepler planets (including super-Earths and sub-Neptunes, from 1–4 Earth radii) are likely formed before the gaseous protoplanetary disks have dissipated, as are the Jovian planets. If the metal content in these disks resembles that in the host stars, one might expect Kepler planets to occur more frequently, and to be more massive, around metal-rich stars. Contrary to these expectations, we find that the radii of Kepler planets (a proxy for mass) are independent of host metallicity. Previous… 
Planets Across Space and Time (PAST). III. Morphology of the Planetary Radius Valley as a Function of Stellar Age and Metallicity in the Galactic Context Revealed by the LAMOST-Gaia-Kepler Sample
The radius valley, a dip in the radius distribution of exoplanets at ∼1.9 R ⊕, separates compact rocky super-Earths and sub-Neptunes with lower density. Various hypotheses have been put forward to

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