Sunspots: An overview

@article{Solanki2003SunspotsAO,
  title={Sunspots: An overview},
  author={Sami K. Solanki},
  journal={The Astronomy and Astrophysics Review},
  year={2003},
  volume={11},
  pages={153-286}
}
  • S. Solanki
  • Published 1 April 2003
  • Physics
  • The Astronomy and Astrophysics Review
Abstract. Sunspots are the most readily visible manifestations of solar magnetic field concentrations and of their interaction with the Sun's plasma. Although sunspots have been extensively studied for almost 400 years and their magnetic nature has been known since 1908, our understanding of a number of their basic properties is still evolving, with the last decades producing considerable advances. In the present review I outline our current empirical knowledge and physical understanding of… 
Magnetic Structure of Sunspots
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This review addresses separately the global and local magnetic structure of sunspots, focusing on the implications of the current observations for the different sunsp spots models, energy transport mechanisms, extrapolations of the magnetic field towards the corona, and other issues.
New Insights into Sunspots Through Hinode Observations
Studies on sunspots have a very long history mostly supported by ground-based observations. However, the detailed evolution of sunspot magnetic field structures are revealed by Hinode observations of
FINE STRUCTURE IN SUNSPOTS
▪ Abstract Important physical processes on the Sun, and especially in sunspots, occur on spatial scales at or below the limiting resolution of current solar telescopes. Over the past decade, using a
A new consideration on the formation of sunspots
The formation of sunspots has been considered by many researchers in the past. After the discovery of magnetic fields in sunspots by George E. Hale, magnetic fields of sunspots have become one of the
Sunspot Structure and Dynamics
  • N. Weiss
  • Physics, Environmental Science
  • 2006
Sunspots are the most prominent magnetic features on the Sun but it is only within the last few years that the intricate structure of their magnetic fields has been resolved. In the penumbra the
Numerical models of sunspot formation and fine structure
  • M. Rempel
  • Physics, Geology
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  • 2012
TLDR
Numerical models have advanced to the degree that simulations of entire sunspot with sufficient resolution to resolve sunspot fine structure are feasible, and a combination of improved helioseismic inversion techniques with seismic forward modelling provides new views on the subsurface structure of sunspots.
Three-dimensional structure of a sunspot light bridge
Context. Active regions are the most prominent manifestations of solar magnetic fields; their generation and dissipation are fundamental problems in solar physics. Light bridges are commonly present
Fields and flares : understanding the complex magnetic topologies of solar active regions
Sunspots are regions of decreased brightness on the visible surface of the Sun (photosphere) that are associated with strong magnetic fields. They have been found to be locations associated with
The transition region above sunspots
Over decades, sunspots and their fine structures have been studied in detail at the photospheric level with different ground-based telescopes, as the surface of the Sun primarily emits light in the
Magnetic fields in the solar photosphere
  • P. Bushby
  • Physics, Geology
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
  • 2008
TLDR
This review discusses recent progress that has been made in the modelling of photospheric magnetic fields, and focuses upon the complex field structures that are observed within the umbrae and the penumbrae of sunspots.
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