Sunscreen bans: Coral reefs and skin cancer

  title={Sunscreen bans: Coral reefs and skin cancer},
  author={Robert B Raffa and Joseph V. Pergolizzi and Robert Taylor and Jan M. Kitzen},
  journal={Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics},
  pages={134 - 139}
Hawaii will ban two major ingredients of sunscreens. This article reviews the reasons and future directions. Hawaii recently enacted legislation that will ban the use of two major ingredients of the majority of commonly used sunscreens. The reason for the ban is the ingredients’ putative deleterious impact on marine ecosystems, particularly coral reefs. But sunscreens also save lives by decreasing the risk of UV‐induced skin cancers. We review both sides of the issue and potential implications… 
Sunscreen and Suntan Preparations
The incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is dramatically increasing worldwide, despite the increased use of improved sunscreens, and protection against UV rays can prevent both sunburn and dangerous skin cancers.
Sunscreens in Coastal Ecosystems: Occurrence, Behavior, Effect and Risk
Since ancient times, humans have felt the need to protect their skin from the harmful effects of the sun: first with the use of vegetable oils or mud that were applied on the skin and then with the
Reducing the prevalence of chemical UV filters from sunscreen in aquatic environments: Regulatory, public awareness, and other considerations
  • Arielle Levine
  • Environmental Science
    Integrated environmental assessment and management
  • 2021
The state of knowledge relating to regulatory and other efforts to reduce the impact of chemical ingredients in sunscreens on aquatic ecosystems is reviewed, focusing on the following questions: to what extent will local legislative restrictions on ingredients actually reduce the concentrations of chemicals in coastal waters and protect aquatic health.
UV filters and their impact on marine life: state of the science, data gaps, and next steps
  • P. Lebaron
  • Environmental Science
    Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • 2022
Sunscreens containing broad‐spectrum ultraviolet (UV) filters play an essential role in protecting the skin against the damage induced by sun overexposure. However, the widespread use of sunscreens
Materials Science Challenges in Skin UV Protection: A Review
The properties, safety, health and ecological concerns of various UV filters including TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles as well as the limitations of the testing protocols and guidelines provided by major regulatory bodies are reviewed.
Interkingdom Genetic Mix-and-Match to Produce Novel Sunscreens.
An engineered biosynthetic pathway employing genes from a vertebrate and two Gram-(+) bacteria that forms novel sunscreen compounds with hybrid structures of gadusol and mycosporine-like amino acids, both of which are found in marine environments are reported.
Suppression of Sunscreen Leakage in Water by Amyloid-like Protein Aggregates.
The high retention ratio of the PTB sunscreen in aquatic environments demonstrates the great potential of amyloid-like protein aggregates in the development of leakage-free sunscreens with low ecosystem hazards and long-lasting UV protection in aquatic environment.
Pharmacologic manipulation of skin pigmentation
By understanding the signaling pathways and regulation of pigmentation, strategies can be developed to manipulate skin pigmentation to improve UV resistance and to diminish skin cancer risk.
Sunscreens: “Do-It-Yourself” (DIY) does not mean enough protection
Skin cancer can affect anyone regardless of their gender, race, or age and cell-cycle progression can be halted and nucleotide excision repair (NER) can begin to undo the DNA damage.
Sustainable Sunscreens: A Challenge Between Performance, Animal Testing Ban, and Human and Environmental Safety
The light and warmth of the sun are among the key parameters for the development of many higher life forms on Earth. As light intensity changes within seasons, organisms including mankind have


Looking to Nature for New Sunscreens
Sunscreen users may feel burned if they do and burned if they don’t: Concerns about the health and environmental effects of current sunscreens seem to be making consumers warier about using them and
Sunscreens Cause Coral Bleaching by Promoting Viral Infections
It is concluded that sunscreens, by promoting viral infection, potentially play an important role in coral bleaching in areas prone to high levels of recreational use by humans.
The ABCs of sunscreen protection factors.
  • M. Kripke
  • Medicine
    The Journal of investigative dermatology
  • 2003
Review: Ultraviolet radiation and skin cancer
A comprehensive overview of skin cancer with an emphasis on carefully evaluated statistics, the epidemiology of UVR‐induced skin cancers, incidence rates, risk factors, and preventative behaviors & strategies, including personal behavioral modifications and public educational initiatives are provided.
Sunscreens, skin photobiology, and skin cancer: the need for UVA protection and evaluation of efficacy.
  • F. Gasparro
  • Biology
    Environmental health perspectives
  • 2000
In this review, the basic aspects of sunscreens and skin photobiology are reviewed briefly and in vivo and in vitro methods proposed for the evaluation of candidate sunscreen formulations of UVA protective ability are reviewed.
Sunscreens in melanoma and skin cancer prevention
  • R. Gallagher
  • Medicine
    Canadian Medical Association Journal
  • 2005
Skin cancers are the most common form of malignant disease in white populations worldwide. Although the incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma is relatively low ([Box 1][1]), almost 15% of cases
Epidemiological trends in skin cancer
The most important risk factors associated with the development of melanoma and NMSC and the impact of skin cancer on health care services are analyzed and the pressing need for improved registration policies is underlined.
Toxicopathological Effects of the Sunscreen UV Filter, Oxybenzone (Benzophenone-3), on Coral Planulae and Cultured Primary Cells and Its Environmental Contamination in Hawaii and the U.S. Virgin Islands
Oxybenzone poses a hazard to coral reef conservation and threatens the resiliency of coral reefs to climate change, and is a skeletal endocrine disruptor to corals.
Prevention of immunosuppression by sunscreens in humans is unrelated to protection from erythema and dependent on protection from ultraviolet a in the face of constant ultraviolet B protection.
The immune protection factor was significantly correlated to the ultraviolet A protective capability of the sunscreens, indicating that sunscreen protection from ultraviolet A is important for the prevention of ultraviolet immunosuppression, when there is constant ultraviolet B protection.