Sundown Towns and Counties: Racial Exclusion in the South

@article{Loewen2009SundownTA,
  title={Sundown Towns and Counties: Racial Exclusion in the South},
  author={James W. Loewen},
  journal={Southern Cultures},
  year={2009},
  volume={15},
  pages={22 - 47}
}
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] Between 1890 and 1960, thousands of towns across the United States drove out their black populations or took steps to forbid African Americans from living in them, creating "sundown towns," so named because many marked their city limits with signs typically reading, "Nigger, Don't Let The Sun Go Down On You In--." In addition, some towns in the West drove out or kept out Chinese Americans, and a few excluded Native Americans or Mexican Americans. "Sundown suburbs… 

Evolution of a sundown town and racial caste system: Norman, Oklahoma from 1889 to 1967

Sundown regions were post-Reconstruction localities that deliberately excluded African Americans, often well into the 20th century. While former states of the Confederacy instituted state-wide racial

The Green Books and the Geography of Segregation in Public Accommodations

Jim Crow segregated African Americans and whites by law and practice. The causes and implications of the associated de jure and de facto residential segregation have received substantial attention

The Evolution of Access to Public Accommodations in the United States

The economic analysis of racial discrimination in public accommodations is remarkably limited. To study this issue, we construct a national dataset of nondiscriminatory establishments from the

An Inductive Approach to Examining Racial Majority Versus Minority Expectations and Appraisals of Police Legitimacy in a Small-Town Context

In the wake of significant media coverage of officer involved shootings and civil unrest to protest police behaviors toward Black suspects, policing is confronting a time where public perceptions of

Oppression and Survival in Maya Angelou’s Poetry

Maya Angelou is considered a major modern African American writer who presents an outstanding example for her race to know how to overcome frustration as well as misery and reach glory together with

Religious Amnesias, Mythologies, and Apolitical Affects in Racist Landscapes

Given their explicit attention to contextual realities, liberation theologies have different expressions in various global contexts. One element they all have in common, however, is a sustained

Poet and Reader in the Witness Box: Society on Trial in Muriel Rukeyser’s Early Poetry

In her early documentary poetry of the 1930s, the Jewish American poet, writer, and political activist Muriel Rukeyser (1913-1980) dealt with two famous cases of social injustice, the Gauley Bridge

Arkansas History, 2009: A Selected Bibliography

IN AN EFFORT TO BE INCLUSIVE, Arkansas history has been broadly defined in the compilation of this bibliography. Some materials, such as genealogical or local history society journals, government

Competition and Discrimination in Public Accommodations: Evidence from the Green Books

This paper seeks to determine the role of market factors in the provision of non-discriminatory services before federal legislation forbade racial discrimination in public accommodations. Using a new

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 33 REFERENCES

The Moral Order of a Suburb

This landmark study examines how the residents of an affluent suburb of New York City deal with conflict in their families, neighbourhoods, and community. Drawing on research, observation, and

The Strange Career of Jim Crow

Strange Career offers a clear and illuminating analysis of the history of Jim Crow laws and American race relations. This book presented evidence that segregation in the South dated only to the

Challenges to Equality: Poverty and Race in America

Foreword, Congressman John Lewis Editor's Introduction, Chester Hartman Part I. Integration Part II. Poverty Part III. Education Part IV. Democratic Participation Part V. Environmental Justice Part

These Colored United States: African American Essays from the 1920s

This text provides an overview of social and cultural life during the race relations decade of the 1920s - from an African American perspective. The essays represent a diverse group of African

The Free State

The Wall Between