Suicide trends in the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic: an interrupted time-series analysis of preliminary data from 21 countries.

@article{Pirkis2021SuicideTI,
  title={Suicide trends in the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic: an interrupted time-series analysis of preliminary data from 21 countries.},
  author={Jane Pirkis and Ann John and Sang-hwa Shin and Marcos DelPozo-Banos and Vikas Arya and Pablo Analuisa-Aguilar and Louis Appleby and Ella Arensman and Jason Bantjes and Anna Baran and Jos{\'e} M Bertolote and Guilherme Borges and Petrana Bre{\vc}i{\'c} and Eric D. Caine and Giulio Castelpietra and Shu-Sen Chang and David M Colchester and David Crompton and Marko {\'C}urkovi{\'c} and Eberhard A. Deisenhammer and Chengan Du and Jeremy Dwyer and Annette Erlangsen and Jeremy Samuel Faust and Sarah Fortune and Andrew Garrett and Devin George and Rebekka M. F. Gerstner and Renske Gilissen and Madelyn S Gould and Keith Hawton and Joseph M Kanter and Navneet Kapur and Murad M. Khan and Olivia J. Kirtley and Duleeka W Knipe and Kairi K{\~o}lves and Stuart Leske and Kedar Marahatta and Ellenor Mittendorfer-Rutz and Nikolay G. Neznanov and Thomas Niederkrotenthaler and Emma Nielsen and Merete Nordentoft and Herwig Oberlerchner and Rory C. O'Connor and Melissa Pearson and Michael R Phillips and Steven I. Platt and Paul Lukas Plener and Georg Psota and Ping Qin and Daniel Radeloff and C. Rados and Andreas Reif and Christine Reif-Leonhard and Vsevolod Rozanov and Christiane Schlang and Barbara Schneider and Natalia V. Semenova and Mark Sinyor and Ellen Townsend and Michiko Ueda and Lakshmi Vijayakumar and Roger T. Webb and Manjula Weerasinghe and Gil Zalsman and David Gunnell and Matthew J. Spittal},
  journal={The lancet. Psychiatry},
  year={2021}
}
BACKGROUND The COVID-19 pandemic is having profound mental health consequences for many people. Concerns have been expressed that, at their most extreme, these consequences could manifest as increased suicide rates. We aimed to assess the early effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on suicide rates around the world. METHODS We sourced real-time suicide data from countries or areas within countries through a systematic internet search and recourse to our networks and the published literature… Expand

Figures from this paper

Child Suicide Rates During the COVID-19 pandemic in England
TLDR
No consistent evidence that child suicide deaths increased during the COVID-19 pandemic was found although there was a concerning signal they may have increased duringThe first UK lockdown, and a similar peak was not seen during the following months, or the second lockdown. Expand
Child suicide rates during the COVID-19 pandemic in England
TLDR
No consistent evidence that child suicide deaths increased during the COVID-19 pandemic was found although there was a possibility that they may have increased duringThe first UK lockdown, and social restrictions appeared to be contributing factors. Expand
Attempted suicide rates before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: interrupted time series analysis of a nationally representative sample
TLDR
The interval exposed to the protracted mass social trauma of the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a lower suicide attempt rate compared to the unexposed interval, however, this trend is likely to reverse 10 months after lifting social mitigation policies, underscoring the need for enhanced implementation of public health policy for suicide prevention. Expand
The Spanish Flu pandemic and stable New Zealand suicide rates: historical lessons for COVID-19.
TLDR
Whether the early phase of a previous pandemic—the “Spanish Flu” pandemic of 1918–1920—was associated with decreased New Zealand suicide rates is investigated and it is hypothesised that the longer-term effects of the Spanish Flu pandemic on New Zealandsuicide rates might be indicative of the shorter-term results of the COVID-19 pandemic. Expand
Suicide and self-harm in low- and middle- income countries during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review
TLDR
The most robust evidence, from time-series studies, indicate either a reduction or no change in suicide and self-harm behaviour, as LMIC continue to experience repeated waves of the virus and increased associated mortality, against a backdrop of vaccine inaccessibility and limited welfare support. Expand
Suicide trends varied by age-subgroups during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 in Taiwan
TLDR
Although an overall decrease in annual suicide rates was found after the outbreak, the age-specific subgroup analysis reveals a more nuanced picture and Stratified analysis is crucial to identify vulnerable subgroups in the midst of the pandemic. Expand
Swedish nationwide time series analysis of influenza and suicide deaths from 1910 to 1978
TLDR
It is found that there is no evidence of short-term or long-term association between influenza death rates and suicide death rates across three 20th century pandemics. Expand
Comparison of suicide attempts among nationally representative samples of Mexican adolescents 12 months before and after the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic
TLDR
It was found that women, youth in urban localities and individuals living in households where a family member had lost her/his job as a result of the Covid-19 contingency were more likely to attempt suicide compared to their counterparts. Expand
Social distancing and influenza mortality in 1918 did not increase suicide rates in the United States
TLDR
Tentative evidence that social distancing mandates during the 1918–20 pandemic may have been associated with decreased suicide rates is reported, in line with some populations’ experiences of COVID-19. Expand
Suicide ideation in Canada during the COVID-19 pandemic.
TLDR
Evidence of changes in suicide ideation due to the COVID-19 pandemic were generally not observed, and continued surveillance of suicide and risk/protective factors is needed to inform suicide prevention efforts. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 39 REFERENCES
Will the COVID-19 pandemic lead to a tsunami of suicides? A Swedish nationwide analysis of historical and 2020 data
TLDR
There was no evidence of short or long-term association between influenza death rates and suicide death rates across three 20th century pandemics or during the first six months of 2020 (when the first wave of COVID-19 occurred). Expand
Trends in suicide rates during the COVID-19 pandemic restrictions in a major German city
TLDR
Careful monitoring of SR in the further course of the COVID-19 crisis is urgently needed because economic insecurity and mental disorders are risk factors for suicide, which may increase during the pandemic. Expand
Suicide in England in the COVID-19 Pandemic: Early Figures from Real Time Surveillance
TLDR
There did not find a rise in suicide in England in the months after the first national lockdown began in 2020, despite evidence of greater distress, and a number of caveats should be noted. Expand
Increase in suicide following an initial decline during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan.
TLDR
Using difference-in-difference estimation, it is found that monthly suicide rates declined by 14% during the first 5 months of the COVID-19 pandemic, but increased during the second wave, with a larger increase among females and children and adolescents. Expand
Suicide and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan
TLDR
The results strongly indicate that continuous monitoring of mental health, particularly that of the most vulnerable populations identified in this study, and appropriate suicide prevention efforts are necessary during and in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic. Expand
No evidence of increase in suicide in Greece during the first wave of Covid-19
TLDR
Suicides did not seem to increase during the first wave of covid-19 and lockdown in Greece, however, this does not mean that mental health did not deteriorate, or that it will not observe an increase in suicides during the second wave. Expand
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on self-harm and suicidal behaviour: a living systematic review.
TLDR
There is thus far no clear evidence of an increase in suicide, self-harm, suicidal behaviour, or suicidal thoughts associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, however, suicide data are challenging to collect in real time and economic effects are evolving. Expand
The Role of the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic on Suicide Rates: Preliminary Study in a Sample of the Greek Population.
TLDR
The role, if any, the current situation may have on suicides and natural deaths in Greece and the main suspected factors were the deprivation of the individuals' religious needs, the abstinence from the preferred occupations, the prohibition of access to supportive organizations, the reduced access to medical centers, and the shortage of medicinal products in pharmacies. Expand
Real-time suicide mortality data from police reports in Queensland, Australia, during the COVID-19 pandemic: an interrupted time-series analysis
TLDR
There does not yet appear to be an overall change in the suspected suicide rate in the 7 months since Queensland declared a public health emergency, which reinforces the need for governments to maintain the monitoring and reporting of suicide mortality in real time. Expand
Impact of 2008 global economic crisis on suicide: time trend study in 54 countries
TLDR
Rises in national suicide rates in men seemed to be associated with the magnitude of increases in unemployment, particularly in countries with low levels of unemployment before the crisis and countries with higher levels of job loss after the crisis. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
...