Suffocation and respiratory responses to carbon dioxide and breath holding challenges in individuals with panic disorder.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE Findings showing that individuals with panic disorder (PD) are prone to experience panic attacks when inhaling CO2-enriched air have given rise to the hypothesis that physiological systems underlying the experience of suffocation may be important in the etiology of PD. In this study, we tested several predictions stemming from this view. METHODS… (More)

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