Sudden cardiac death in marathons: a systematic review

@article{Waite2016SuddenCD,
  title={Sudden cardiac death in marathons: a systematic review},
  author={Oliver P. Waite and Andy Smith and Luke Madge and Hannah Spring and Nathalie Noret},
  journal={The Physician and Sportsmedicine},
  year={2016},
  volume={44},
  pages={79 - 84}
}
Abstract The aim of this systematic review is to summarise the results of cohort studies that examined the incidence of SCD in marathons and to assess the quality of the methods used. A search of the PROSPERO international database revealed no prospective or published systematic reviews investigating SCD in marathons. The review was conducted using studies that reported and characterised the incidence of SCD in people participating in marathons. Studies were identified via electronic database… 

Prevalence of Myocardial Fibrosis in Intensive Endurance Training Athletes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

The available evidence demonstrates that high-intensity endurance athletes is associated with an increased incidence of LGE positive, and the meta-analysis suggested that the prevalence of L GE was higher in the athletes group with long-term endurance exercise.

Analysis of Sudden Cardiac Arrest during Marathon Races in Japan

Performing PAD on the scene during marathon races could be expected to be higher in the survival rate and creating a medical support system is needed to handle sudden cardiac arrest rapidly in order to perform early bystander CPR and PAD.

The Method of How to Collect Data of Cardiac Arrests Occurred during Marathon Races and Analysis Items

Performing PAD on the scene during marathon races could be expected to be higher in the survival rate, and creating a medical support system is needed to handle sudden cardiac arrest rapidly in order to perform early bystander CPR and PAD.

Sudden Cardiac Death in Athletes: Tips for Prevention

A three-step evaluation of athletes in this age group is suggested and it is emphasized that the regulation of the emergency field of the race environment is very effective in reducing mortality.

Incidence and characteristics of severe exercise-associated collapse at the world’s largest half-marathon

Typical characteristics of a collapsed runner were identified providing new information which could be beneficial in the medical planning of larger running competitions and future preventative interventions.

Prehospital interventions and neurological outcomes in marathon-related sudden cardiac arrest using a rapid mobile automated external defibrillator system in Japan: a prospective observational study

The RMAEDS successfully treated patients with SCA during road and long-distance races yielding a high survival rate and favourable neurological outcomes, and these findings support rapid intervention and the proper placement of healthcare teams along the race course to initiate chest compressions within 1 min and perform defibrillation within 3‬min.

Mortality in long-distance running races in Sweden - 2007–2016

Death rates in long distance running races between 2007 and 2016 in Sweden are very low, compared to previous studies, and the combined picture suggests a general downward trend in the risk of death during marathons since the 1980s.

Response by Merghani et al to Letters Regarding Article, "Prevalence of Subclinical Coronary Artery Disease in Masters Endurance Athletes With a Low Atherosclerotic Risk Profile".

Although it is conceivable that myocardial bridging may cause atherosclerotic plaque proximal to the bridge, the observations do not substantiate this particular theory as a possible mechanism of atherosclerosis in masters athletes.

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 35 REFERENCES

Sudden cardiac arrest and death in united states marathons

SCA occurs in approximately 1 in 45 000 marathon runners, is more common in middle to late aged males, and can occur anywhere along the race course with the majority of cases in the final 10 miles.

Marathon running as a cause of troponin elevation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

It is demonstrated that cTn levels are frequently elevated after a marathon with unclear cardiovascular significance, and this elevation appears to be consistent among a diverse patient population.

Competing risks of mortality with marathons: retrospective analysis

Organised marathons are not associated with an increase in sudden deaths from a societal perspective, contrary to anecdotal impressions fostered by news media.

Association of physical activity with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Physical activity is associated with a marked decrease in cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in both men and women, even after adjusting for other relevant risk factors.

Mortality Among Marathon Runners in the United States, 2000-2009

Participation in marathons has increased without any change in mortality or average overall performance from 2000 to 2009, according to publicly available racing and news databases.

Cardiac arrest during long-distance running races.

Marathons and half-marathons are associated with a low overall risk of cardiac arrest and sudden death, and initiation of bystander-administered cardiopulmonary resuscitation and an underlying diagnosis other than hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were the strongest predictors of survival.

Marathon cardiac deaths : the london experience.

Data from the London Marathon, with 650,000 completed runs, show that cardiac arrests occur even in the most experienced runners, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or idiopathic left ventricular hypertrophy was diagnosed at autopsy on three occasions.

Prerace aspirin to protect susceptible runners from cardiac arrest during marathons: is opportunity knocking?

Prerace low-dose aspirin usage is prudent to protect susceptible runners from a high, if transient, risk for cardiac arrest during races as evidence-based to prevent first myocardial infarctions in same-aged healthy men.

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

  • D. Menzies
  • Medicine
    The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
  • 2011
Systematic reviews can help identify research priorities as areas where knowledge is uncertain, and also those topics where little additional work is required, and can have a substantial impact on practice and policy.

Can Intensive Exercise Harm the Heart?: You Can Get Too Much of a Good Thing

Using cohort studies, surrogate end points and preclinical data, the substantial evidence suggesting that intense exercise, particularly intense endurance exercise, can be associated with adverse cardiac remodeling and an excess of arrhythmias is highlighted.