Successful treatment of pacemaker-induced stricture and thrombosis of the cranial vena cava in two dogs by use of anticoagulants and balloon venoplasty.

CASE DESCRIPTION 2 castrated male Labrador Retrievers (dogs 1 and 2) were evaluated 3 to 4 years after placement of a permanent pacemaker. Dog 1 was evaluated because of a large volume of chylous pleural effusion. Dog 2 was admitted for elective replacement of a pacemaker. CLINICAL FINDINGS Dog 1 had mild facial swelling and a rapidly recurring pleural… (More)