Successful inhibition, unsuccessful retrieval: Manipulating time and success during retrieval practice

  title={Successful inhibition, unsuccessful retrieval: Manipulating time and success during retrieval practice},
  author={Benjamin C Storm and John F. Nestojko},
  pages={114 - 99}
Retrieving an item or set of items from memory can cause the forgetting of other related items in memory; a phenomenon known as retrieval-induced forgetting. According to the inhibitory account of retrieval-induced forgetting, in searching for a particular item, other items that are related but incorrect can vie for access. Inhibition functions to decrease the accessibility of such interfering items, thereby facilitating access to the target item. Experiments 1 and 2 replicated recent work… 
Retrieval-practice task affects relationship between working memory capacity and retrieval-induced forgetting
This work manipulated the way in which participants retrieved items during retrieval practice and examined how the resulting effects of forgetting correlated with working memory capacity and stop-signal reaction times, providing important new insight into the role of executive-control processes in RIF.
Retrieval-induced forgetting in recall: competitor interference revisited.
  • M. Verde
  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition
  • 2013
Experiments 3-6 supported the predictions of the model by demonstrating that nonretrieval practice can produce the RIF effect under conditions that emphasize context encoding or increase the number of competitors.
Forgetting as a consequence of retrieval: a meta-analytic review of retrieval-induced forgetting.
The first major meta-analysis of retrieval-induced forgetting is conducted, quantitatively evaluating the multitude of findings used to contrast these 2 theoretical viewpoints, and the results largely supported inhibition accounts but also provided some challenging evidence.
Initial retrieval shields against retrieval-induced forgetting
It is suggested that initial retrieval of the learning set shields against the forgetting effect of later selective retrieval, and the results support the context shift theory of RIF.
An investigation of response competition in retrieval-induced forgetting
Abstract It has been demonstrated that retrieval practice on a subset of studied items can cause forgetting of different related studied items. This retrieval-induced forgetting (the RIF effect) has
Feedback increases benefits but not costs of retrieval practice: Retrieval-induced forgetting is strength independent
We examined how the provision of feedback affected two separate effects of retrieval practice: strengthening of practiced information and forgetting of related, unpracticed information. Feedback
Does retrieving a memory insulate it against memory inhibition? A retroactive interference study
It is indicated that an initial retrieval attempt on a competitor does not abolish retrieval-induced forgetting, at least not in the context of this classic design, and robust evidence is observed that retroactive interference generalises to final memory tests involving novel, independent memory probes.
Evidence against associative blocking as a cause of cue-independent retrieval-induced forgetting.
It is demonstrated that cue-independent RIF is unrelated to the strengthening of practiced items, and thereby fail to support a key prediction of the covert-cueing hypothesis, which favors a role of inhibition in resolving retrieval interference.
Electrophysiological correlates of competitor activation predict retrieval-induced forgetting.
ERP correlates of the reactivation of tightly bound associated memories (the competitors) are demonstrated and support for the inhibitory-control account of RIF is provided.
Retrieval induces forgetting, but only when nontested items compete for retrieval: Implication for interference, inhibition, and context reinstatement.
The mechanism responsible for retrieval-induced forgetting has been the subject of rigorous theoretical debate, with some researchers postulating that retrieval-induced forgetting can be explained by


No retrieval-induced forgetting using item-specific independent cues: evidence against a general inhibitory account.
Results are not in line with a general inhibitory account, because this account predicts retrieval-induced forgetting with independent cues, but forgetting was found for both item types when studied categories were used as cues.
Is retrieval success a necessary condition for retrieval-induced forgetting?
Using a procedure in which some cues posed an impossible retrieval task for participants, evidence is reported that the attempt to retrieve, even if unsuccessful, can produce retrieval-induced forgetting, which supports and refines a suppression/inhibitory account of retrieval- induced forgetting.
Retrieval-induced forgetting in implicit memory tests: The role of test awareness
Test awareness seems to mediate retrieval-induced forgetting in implicit memory tasks, and this hypothesis predicts similar effects in implicitMemory tasks.
Remembering can cause forgetting: retrieval dynamics in long-term memory.
A critical role for suppression in models of retrieval inhibition and a retrieval-induced forgetting that implicate the retrieval process itself in everyday forgetting are suggested.
The Role of Inhibitory Control in Forgetting Semantic Knowledge
The findings show that inhibitory control processes overcome interference during semantic retrieval and that recruitment of these processes may contribute to semantic forgetting.
Retrieval-induced forgetting: Evidence for a recall-specific mechanism
These findings argue that retrieval-induced forgetting is not caused by increased competition arising from the strengthening of practiced items, but by inhibitory processes specific to the situation of recall.
Retrieval-induced forgetting in episodic memory.
Across experiments, retrieval-induced forgetting was observed for different perceptual groupings and for different cuing procedures, but the effect, however, required retrieval of information during the interpolated phase.
Semantic Generation Can Cause Episodic Forgetting
This result indicates that, first, semantic generation can cause recall-specific episodic forgetting and, second, retrieval-induced forgetting can occur even if the retrieved and nonretrieved items belong to different experiential episodes and tasks.