Successful application of entomopathogenic nematodes for the biological control of western corn rootworm larvae in Europe – a mini review

  title={Successful application of entomopathogenic nematodes for the biological control of western corn rootworm larvae in Europe – a mini review},
  author={Stefan Toepfer and Patricia E. Knuth and M. Gracia Glas and Ulrich Kuhlmann},
10 years of joint efforts in research and development have led to a nematode-based biological control solution for one of the most destructive maize pests, the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Commercially mass-produced Heterorhabditis species of beneficial entomopathogenic nematodes are ready to use. They can be applied into the soil during sowing of maize for controlling the subsequently hatching larvae of D. virgifera virgifera thus… 

Protecting maize from rootworm damage with the combined application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Pseudomonas bacteria and entomopathogenic nematodes

For two of the three trials, it was found that in plots treated with entomopathogenic nematodes and/or entomopathic Pseudomonas bacteria, roots were less damaged than the roots of plants in control plots, and the surviving larvae that were recovered from these plots were lighter.

Evaluation of the Field Efficacy of Heterorhabditis Bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) and Synthetic Insecticides for the Control of Western Corn Rootworm Larvae

It was concluded that the control of WCR larvae in maize using the entomopathogenic nematode H. bacteriophora is as effective as a tefluthrin treatment, and could thus offer a sustainable Diabrotica v. virgifera biological control management option in Europe.

Rootworm management: status of GM traits, insecticides and potential new tools.

The challenges associated with managing both species are discussed, and how current management strategies might be combined and implemented to help manage damage from these species is discussed.

Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) in Europe: Current Status and Sustainable Pest Management

A review of scientific papers published between 2008 and 2020, in addition to direct interviews with experts responsible for WCR management in several European countries, was conducted to summarize the research conducted over the last 12 years and describe the current WCR distribution and population in the EU, and the management strategies implemented.

Detection methods for monitoring resistance to Bt corn (Zea mays L.) in Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

Results confirm that resistance to Cry3Bb1 and mCry3a occurred in some areas of Michigan, but not in Ontario, and highlight the importance of incorporating insect resistance management into integrated pest management to prolong the efficacy of current and future D. v. virgifera management tactics.

Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Sustainable Food Production

This review summarizes significant progress made in the research and application of EPN in insect pest management in important food crops including orchards, small fruit, maize, vegetables, tuber crops, greenhouses, and mushrooms.



How maize root volatiles affect the efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes in controlling the western corn rootworm?

It is concluded that, if properly applied and in combination with the right maize variety, the release of these nematodes can be as effective as other control methods.

Comparative assessment of the efficacy of entomopathogenic nematode species at reducing western corn rootworm larvae and root damage in maize

All tested EPN species significantly reduced damage on maize roots independently, whether they were applied at sowing or in June, however, damage was not totally prevented and the use of H. bacteriophora for the development of a biological control product for inundative releases against D. v. virgifera larvae is suggested.

Assessment of establishment and persistence of entomopathogenic nematodes for biological control of western corn rootworm

Results demonstrate that D. virgifera larvae can potentially be controlled by EPNs during the same year of EPN application but no long‐term control effect is expected under intensive maize cultivation practices.

Controlling western corn rootworm larvae with entomopathogenic nematodes: effect of application techniques on plant‐scale efficacy

The three larval instars of western corn rootworm feed on the roots of maize, Zea mays, and the effects of six application techniques on the plant‐scale efficacy of the entomopathogenic nematode species, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar, in controlling D. v. virgifera populations were assessed.

Natural occurrence of insect pathogenic fungi and insect parasitic nematodes in Diabrotica virgifera virgifera populations

This is the first report of a natural occurrence of entomoparasitic nematodes (Heterorhabditis sp., Steinernema sp.) in Diabrotica v. v. virgifera in Europe.

Comparative susceptibility of larval instars and pupae of the western corn rootworm to infection by three entomopathogenic nematodes

It is predicted that early application against young larval instars would be most effective at preventing root feeding damage by D. v. virgifera, and applications of nematodes just before or during the time period when third instars are predominant in the field are likely to increase control efficacy.

Capsules containing entomopathogenic nematodes as a Trojan horse approach to control the western corn rootworm

It is demonstrated that nematodes can be successfully applied in capsules in the field and the added attractants and feeding stimulants to the shell attracted the pest larvae as much as maize roots.

Comparative efficacy assessment of fungi, nematodes and insecticides to control western corn rootworm larvae in maize

Large-scale commercialisation of these biological agents could offer viable and practical control options against D. v. virgifera and prevent 23–95% of potential root damage.

Influence of soil on the efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes in reducing Diabrotica virgifera virgifera in maize

Nematodes have the potential to reduce D. v. virgifera larvae in most soils; however, their efficacy can be higher in maize fields with heavy clay or silty clay soils than in sandy soils, which is in contrast to the common assumption that nematodes perform better in sandy soil than in heavy soils.

Field performance of entomopathogenic nematodes for suppression of western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

Entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinemema carpocapsae (Weiser) and Heterorhabditis bactetiophora Poinar (Lewiston strain), and terbufos were evaluated as control agents for the western com root worm.