Successful adaptation to climate change across scales

  title={Successful adaptation to climate change across scales},
  author={W. Neil Adger and Nigel W. Arnell and Emma L. Tompkins},
  journal={Global Environmental Change-human and Policy Dimensions},
Climate change impacts and responses are presently observed in physical and ecological systems. Adaptation to these impacts is increasingly being observed in both physical and ecological systems as well as in human adjustments to resource availability and risk at different spatial and societal scales. We review the nature of adaptation and the implications of different spatial scales for these processes. We outline a set of normative evaluative criteria for judging the success of adaptations at… 

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