Subutai: Sorting Fact from Fiction Surrounding the Mongol Empire’s Greatest General (With Translations of Subutai’s Two Biographies in the Yuan Shi)

  title={Subutai: Sorting Fact from Fiction Surrounding the Mongol Empire’s Greatest General (With Translations of Subutai’s Two Biographies in the Yuan Shi)},
  author={Stephen Pow and Jing Liao},
Subutai [Sube’etei], often referred to as the greatest of the Mongol Empire’s generals, has increasingly become a topic of popular interest. However, the literature about him continues to rely on secondary sources so that popular and scholarly work alike often contains and perpetuates ahistorical statements regarding his origins and his military career. Based on the assumption that many errors have been perpetuated because Chinese source material has not been sufficiently integrated into… 
6 Citations

Contextualizing the Mongol Invasion of Hungary in 1241–42: Short- and Long-Term Perspectives

The Mongol invasion in 1241–42 was a major disruption in the Kingdom of Hungary’s history that brought serious changes to many facets of its political, demographic, and military development. It

Finding Batu’s Hill at Muhi: Liminality between Rebellious Territory and Submissive Territory, Earth and Heaven for a Mongol Prince on the Eve of Battle*

This study offers a reconstruction of a crucial event of pan-Eurasian historical significance—namely, the Battle of Muhi in 1241—by focusing on two primary source accounts of Batu Khan ascending a

Climatic and Environmental Limiting Factors in the Mongol Empire’s Westward Expansion: Exploring Causes for the Mongol Withdrawal from Hungary in 1242

  • Stephen Pow
  • History
    Socio-Environmental Dynamics along the Historical Silk Road
  • 2019
From its formation in the early years of the thirteenth century, the Mongol Empire expanded rapidly along the steppe belt and trade routes comprising the Silk Road, forming partnerships with

The Early Jochid Campaigns and the pro-Toluid Written Sources

Research objectives: To analyze the information contained in diverse written sources about the early Jochid conquests which preceded the start of Batu’s western campaign in Eastern Europe (1236–1242)

The First Mongol Invasion of Europe: Goals and Results

  • A. Maiorov
  • History
    Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society
  • 2022
Abstract This article establishes that the tümens which took part in Jebe and Sübedei's Raid to Europe were not merely conducting a reconnaissance mission, as it is usually described. The campaign


  • B. Çelik
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    Selçuk Üniversitesi Selçuklu Araştırmaları Dergisi
  • 2022
For centuries, Central Europe was invaded by various peoples (Germanic, Visigoth, etc.) and suffered great damage from that. However, the main damage to Europe was the violent invasions of the tribes



Pu'a's Boast and Doqolqu's Death: Historiography of a Hidden Scandal in the Mongol Conquest of the Jin

The Mongol conquest of North China has received little attention from modern historians in comparison to that of Central Asia, Iran, or South China, or to its undeniable importance to the Mongol

The devil's horsemen: the Mongol invasion of Europe. By James Chambers. pp. [x], 214, front., illus., 4 maps. London, Cassell, 1988. First published 1979. £14.95.

  • Peter Jackson
  • Art, History
    Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland
  • 1990
The story of the collection of Henri Vever (d. 1942) is now well known: how it was that it disappeared and how it was traced. Less is generally known about the life of the jeweller who had a passion

The Secret History of the Mongols: A Mongolian epic chronicle of the thirteenth century Translated with a historical and philological commentary

The appearance of this new publication by Igor de Rachewiltz is evidence of the unquenchable interest in the Mongolian medieval literary monument The Secret History of the Mongols. To quote: ‘The

The Last Campaign and Death of Jebe Noyan

  • Stephen Pow
  • History
    Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society
  • 2016
Abstract Despite Jebe Noyan's importance to the expansion of Chinggis Khan's empire, the Mongol general remains a shadowy figure. In part this stems from the absence of any biography of Jebe in the

Bortz, a Cuman chief in the 13th century

The Cumans, also known as Kipchaks and Polovcians, flourished during the 11th-13th centuries in the territory of the East European steppe. At the beginning of the 13th century the Hungarian Kingdom

The First Mongol Contacts with the Tibetans

since the thirteenth century, the “Mongolia-Tibet interface” (bulag and Diemberger 2007) has been a vital factor in shaping inner asian civilization. brought into being by the Mongol extension of

The Devil's Horsemen: The Mongol Invasion of Europe

The origins and consequences of the extraordinary campaign of Batu Khan, founder of the Golden Horde, and the Mongol Invasion of Europe.