Submaximal exercise gas exchange is an important prognostic tool to predict adverse outcomes in heart failure.

AIMS Traditionally, VO(2peak) has been used to determine prognosis in heart failure; however, this measure has limitations. Hence, other exercise and gas exchange parameters measured submaximally, e.g. breathing efficiency (V(E)/VCO(2)), end-tidal CO(2) (P(ET)CO(2)), oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES), and circulatory power [ systolic blood pressure (SBP… CONTINUE READING