Subjective contours - bridging the gap between psychophysics and physiology

@article{Peterhans1991SubjectiveC,
  title={Subjective contours - bridging the gap between psychophysics and physiology},
  author={Esther Peterhans and R{\"u}diger von der Heydt},
  journal={Trends in Neurosciences},
  year={1991},
  volume={14},
  pages={112-119}
}
Enhanced Perception of Illusory Contours in the Lower Versus Upper Visual Hemifields
TLDR
An important component of this organizational process, the segmentation of an image into figures and background, is shown to be performed much better in the lower visual field, indicating a neural specialization that may be related to the anatomical discontinuity along the representation of the horizontal meridian in extrastriate visual cortex.
From perceptive fields to Gestalt.
  • L. Spillmann
  • Biology, Psychology
    Progress in brain research
  • 2006
TLDR
Studies on visual psychophysics and perception conducted in the Freiburg Psychophysics laboratory during the last 35 years are reviewed to correlate perceptual phenomena and their effects to possible neuronal mechanisms from retina to visual cortex and beyond.
Gestalt Issues in Modern Neuroscience
We present select examples of how visual phenomena can serve as tools to uncoverbrain mechanisms. Specifically, receptive field organization is proposed as a Gestalt-like neural mechanism of
Central neural mechanisms for detecting second-order motion
  • C. Baker
  • Biology, Psychology
    Current Opinion in Neurobiology
  • 1999
Stereoscopic Illusory ContoursCortical Neuron Responses and Human Perception
TLDR
Neurons in the monkey visual cortex that signal such illusory contours and can be selective for certain figure-ground directions that human observers perceive at these contours are described.
The representation of Kanizsa illusory contours in the monkey inferior temporal cortex
TLDR
Differences in processing are revealed for Kanizsa figures and shapes having real contours in the monkey inferotemporal cortex, an area essential for object and shape vision.
Illusory shape representation in the monkey inferior temporal cortex
TLDR
Different modes of processing of RCs and ICs in the IT might explain the differences in their perception, as well as the invariance of selectivity to shapes having the same contour but lacking internal surface information.
Figure‐Ground Segregation at Contours: a Neural Mechanism in the Visual Cortex of the Alert Monkey
TLDR
Occlusion cues are used at an early level of processing to segregate figure and ground at contours in situations of spatial occlusion, and this process is analysed in the visual cortex of the alert monkey.
Illusory contours and spatial neglect
TLDR
Patients with left spatial neglect who were unable to detect the left inducers of Kanizsa illusory figures in a same/different judgment task but nonetheless showed implicit perception of the Figures in a midpoint judgment made identical bisection for figures with Illusory or real contours but very different bisected for other spatially discontinuous figures that did not yield illusorous fillingin.
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References

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TLDR
Figures in which human observers perceive "illusory contours" were found to evoke responses in cells of area 18 in the visual cortex of alert monkeys, and cells in area 17 were apparently unable to "see" these contours.
Illusory Contours as the Solution to a Problem
TLDR
The perception of certain figures with illusory contours entails a reversal of figure and ground and it is hypothesized that this process occurs in two stages, namely, alignment of physically present contours, recognition of parts of the stimulus array, and set.
Mechanisms of contour perception in monkey visual cortex. II. Contours bridging gaps
TLDR
The contour responses in V2, the nonadditivity, and the effect of closure can be explained by the previously proposed model (Peterhans et al., 1986), assuming that the corners excite end-stopped fields orthogonal to the contours whose signals are pooled in the contour neurons.
Stimulus determinants of brightness and distinctness of subjective contours
TLDR
It was found that apparent brightness is influenced more by number of inducing elements, whereas apparent sharpness increases more with inducing element width, and stimulus configuration may influence brightness and sharpness differentially.
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TLDR
The striate cortex was studied in lightly anaesthetized macaque and spider monkeys by recording extracellularly from single units and stimulating the retinas with spots or patterns of light, with response properties very similar to those previously described in the cat.
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TLDR
It has been proposed that the selective response of edge-detectors to properties such as orientation and motion underlies form and pattern perception, and local discontinuity within the visual display is a necessary condition for perception of an edge.
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TLDR
It is concluded that contours may be defined first at the level of V1, while the unresponsiveness of neurons in V1 to this type of anomalous contour is in agreement with linear filter predictions, the responses of V2 neurons need to be explained.
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The general question is raised: “Are visual contours given directly from striate-cortex feature-detector activity?‘’ Phenomena of ‘subjective’ or ‘cognitive’ contours are examined to challenge this
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