Subfield history: caloric restriction, slowing aging, and extending life.

@article{Masoro2003SubfieldHC,
  title={Subfield history: caloric restriction, slowing aging, and extending life.},
  author={Edward J. Masoro},
  journal={Science of aging knowledge environment : SAGE KE},
  year={2003},
  volume={2003 8},
  pages={
          RE2
        }
}
  • E. Masoro
  • Published 26 February 2003
  • Medicine
  • Science of aging knowledge environment : SAGE KE
Caloric restriction has resulted in a consistent robust increase in the maximal length of life in mammalian species. This article reviews significant advances over the long history of research on calorie restriction and longevity. 

The unfortunate influence of the weather on the rate of ageing: why human caloric restriction or its emulation may only extend life expectancy by 2-3 years.

This paper aims to clarify the role of interbreeding between humans and mice and investigates the relationship between the behaviour of these animals and each other's immune defences.

Health span extension by later-life caloric or dietary restriction: a view based on rodent studies

It is shown that the late life caloric restriction rejuvenates some parameters that decline with age in rats and mice and could extend the health span if the extent were appropriate.

Benefits of short-term dietary restriction in mammals

Calorie restriction: what recent results suggest for the future of ageing research

Eur J Clin Invest 2010; 40 (5): 440–450

Macronutrients and caloric intake in health and longevity.

The current understanding regarding the impact of calories and macronutrient balance in mammalian health and longevity is discussed, and the key nutrient-sensing pathways that mediate the effects of nutrition on health and ageing are highlighted.

Effects of caloric restriction are species-specific

Any insights regarding the relationship between CR and human aging are more likely to arise from studies of established, mammalian models of CR.

Evolutionary Medicine: From Dwarf Model Systems to Healthy Centenarians?

In organisms ranging from yeast to mice, mutations in glucose or IGF-I–like signaling pathways extend life-span but also cause glycogen or fat accumulation and dwarfism, suggesting a new category of drugs that could prevent or postpone diseases of aging with few adverse effects.

Rodent diet aids and the fallacy of caloric restriction

Caloric Restriction Diet Induces Specific Epigenotypes Associated with Life Span Extension

The CRD-induced life-span prolongation in animals was accompanied by the induction of specific epigenotypes featured by acceleration of the electron transfer rate in electron transport chain and subsequent reduced production of reactive oxygen species and increased antioxidant activity.
...

References

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Biomarkers of Caloric Restriction May Predict Longevity in Humans

The most robust intervention for slowing aging and maintaining health and function in animals is dietary caloric restriction (CR), and data accumulating from rhesus monkeys suggest that CR may also be associated with age-related decline in animals.

Dietary Restriction in Long-Lived Dwarf Flies

This work showed that a long-lived mutant mouse, the Ames dwarf, showed that its life-span could be further extended by another intervention, dietary restriction, in which dietary restriction increased the mouse's lifespan by up to 25%.

Nutritional influences on aging of Fischer 344 rats: I. Physical, metabolic, and longevity characteristics.

Compared with that limited to early life or involving most of the life span on physical, metabolic, and longevity characteristics, food restriction does not act by reducing the intake of calories or other nutrient per gram of body mass, a finding not in accord with classic views.

Action of food restriction in delaying the aging process.

Data are presented in this report showing that food restriction can have a marked life-prolonging action in rats without reducing caloric intake per gram of body weight, and the concept thatFood restriction slows the rate of aging by decreasing the metabolic rate is not supported.

Possible Mechanisms Underlying the Antiaging Actions of Caloric Restriction

Restricting the food intake of mice and rats to well below that of ad libitum-fed animals markedly slows the aging processes. This action is reflected in an increase in longevity, a decrease in the

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It is suggested that Darwinian fitness will be increased if animals cease breeding during periods of food deprivation and invest saved resources in maintenance of the adult body, or soma, to increase the probability of producing viable offspring during an extended lifespan.

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In this scenario, food shortage led to an adaptive redirection of resources away from reproduction toward somatic maintenance via an enhanced heat shock protein response in invertebrates and in vertebrates an additional involvement of the hypothalamic-adenohypophyseal-adrenal glucocorticoid system was necessitated to protect against excessive systemic defense responses.

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There was support for the idea that the response to chronic DR is associated with changes in reproductive allocation during short-term periods of starvation: species that reduced reproduction when starved increased their life span under DR, whereas species that continued to reproduce when starved decreased their life spans under DR.
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