MicroRNAs Regulate Human Adipocyte Lipolysis: Effects of miR-145 Are Linked to TNF-α
Inflammatory cytokines released from adipose tissue play an important role in different pathological processes. In the present study, we investigated the inflammatory cytokine response of human subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) by applying the open-flow microperfusion technique. Four standard 18-gauge microperfusion catheters were inserted into periumbilical SAT of eight healthy male volunteers [29 +/- 3 yr, BMI 24.3 +/- 1.9 (mean +/- SD)]. SAT probe effluents were collected at 60-min intervals for 8 h after catheter insertion. Different perfusion fluids were used to measure the local effect of insulin and/or glucose on the cytokine response. SAT probe effluents were analyzed for IL-1beta, IL-6, CXCL8 (IL-8), and TNF-alpha. SAT concentrations of IL-1beta increased 100-fold from 1.0 +/- 0.2 pg/ml (mean +/- SE) to 101.5 +/- 23.2 pg/ml (P < 0.001) after 8 h. A 130-fold increase was observed for CXCL8, from 49 +/- 29 to 6,554 +/- 1,713 pg/ml (P < 0.001). Furthermore, a 20-fold increase of IL-6 was observed within the first 5 h (from 159 +/- 123 to 3,554 +/- 394 pg/ml; P < 0.001), and a significant decline to 2,154 +/- 216 pg/ml (P < 0.01) was seen thereafter. Finally, TNF-alpha increased from 1.4 +/- 0.6 to 2.5 +/- 0.5 pg/ml (P < 0.05) in hour 2 and remained stable thereafter. Local administration of insulin exerted a stimulatory effect on the inflammatory response of IL-6. In conclusion, SAT exerts a highly reproducible and consistent proinflammatory cytokine response after minimally invasive trauma caused by the insertion of a catheter in humans.