Subcritical convection in an internally heated layer

@article{Xiang2017SubcriticalCI,
  title={Subcritical convection in an internally heated layer},
  author={Linyan Xiang and Oleg Zikanov},
  journal={arXiv: Fluid Dynamics},
  year={2017}
}
Thermal convection in a horizontal layer with uniform internal heating and stress-free constant-temperature boundaries is analyzed numerically. The work is motivated by the questions arising in development of liquid metal batteries, in which convection is induced by the Joule heating of electrolyte. It is demonstrated that three-dimensional convection cells exist at subcritical Rayleigh numbers. 

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