Styrene Resin Used in Cured in Place Pipe Rehabilitation May Have a Significant Localized Ecotoxicity, Despite Fast General Biodegradation

  • Published 2009

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to establish the dynamics and kinetics of the aromatic hydrocarbons breakdown in aqueous environment. The investigated compounds were: benzene, toluene, m-xylene, p-xylene and styrene. These substances even in low concentrations threaten surface waters taken for municipal purposes because of their toxicity and also mutagenic and tumorigenic properties. The study was carried out under model conditions simulating the environment of river water moderately contaminated and laboratory water ecosystem. The obtained results indicate that the concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons, river microflora adapted to the environment of aromatic hydrocarbons as well as decreased temperature affected the process of the aromatic hydrocarbons' degradation. Due to the significant evaporation, the studied compounds are present in river water only for a short period of time. The half-times calculated in accordance with the kinetic equation of 1st order amounted to 1.18.7 days; the contribution of evaporation was on average 28%. When the microflora had been adapted to the presence of these compounds, the process of degradation was as rule more rapid for both investigated temperatures (20 degrees C and 8 degrees C) and for most of the series. This process was slowed down by temperature fall to about 8 degrees C, but only in the range of low concentrations (1-32 mg/l). This regularity was not observed for higher concentrations up to 146 mg/l. The mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons at concentrations of 3.14-37.11 mg/l, exposed for 20 days to water ecosystem under dynamic conditions was reduced up to 99%. The investigated aromatic hydrocarbons were not absorbed by Elodea canadesis and Physa fortinalis and were weakly condensed in Lebistes reticulatis (cumulation coefficients-0.5-22.8). In the case of bottom sediments, it was stated that these compounds were not cumulated. The investigated concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons didn't have a positive or negative effect on the aquatic biocenosis settled in the ecosystem. Note: RN: 0 (Hydrocarbons, Aromatic); 0 (Water Pollutants); 7732-18-5 (Water); LR: 20061115. ACCESS: Available through InterLibrary Loan. NOTE: Source is TOXLINE, abstract in English, article may be in Polish. Acute Health Effects After Accidental Exposure To Styrene From Drinking Water In Spain CITATION: Alberto Arnedo-Pena, Juan Bellido-Blasco, Jose-Luis Villamarin-Vazquez, et al. , Environmental health.: a.global access science source, 2003. Vol. 2, No. 1, Pg. 6, ISBN: 1476069X. ABSTRACT: We studied subjective health symptoms in a population accidentally exposed to high styrene concentrations in drinking tap water. The contamination occurred during the reparation of a water tank. METHODS: Residents of 27 apartments in two buildings using the contaminated water were contacted. A questionnaire on subjective symptoms was administered to 84 out of 93 persons living in the apartments at the time of the accident. Styrene concentration was measured in samples of water collected two days after the accident. The means of exposure associated with appearance of symptoms were examined through case-control analyses. RESULTS: Styrene in water reached concentrations up to 900 microg/L. Symptoms were reported by 46 persons (attack rate 55 %). The most frequent symptoms were irritation of the throat (26%), nose (19%), eyes (18%) and the skin (14%). General gastrointestinal symptoms were observed with 11% reporting abdominal pain and 7% diarrhea. The factors most strongly associated with symptoms were drinking tap water (OR = 7.8, 95% CI 1.3-48), exposure to vapors from the basement (OR = 10.4, 2.3-47) and eating We studied subjective health symptoms in a population accidentally exposed to high styrene concentrations in drinking tap water. The contamination occurred during the reparation of a water tank. METHODS: Residents of 27 apartments in two buildings using the contaminated water were contacted. A questionnaire on subjective symptoms was administered to 84 out of 93 persons living in the apartments at the time of the accident. Styrene concentration was measured in samples of water collected two days after the accident. The means of exposure associated with appearance of symptoms were examined through case-control analyses. RESULTS: Styrene in water reached concentrations up to 900 microg/L. Symptoms were reported by 46 persons (attack rate 55 %). The most frequent symptoms were irritation of the throat (26%), nose (19%), eyes (18%) and the skin (14%). General gastrointestinal symptoms were observed with 11% reporting abdominal pain and 7% diarrhea. The factors most strongly associated with symptoms were drinking tap water (OR = 7.8, 95% CI 1.3-48), exposure to vapors from the basement (OR = 10.4, 2.3-47) and eating foods prepared with tap water (OR = 8.6, 1.9-40). All residents in the ground floor reported symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: This accidental contamination led to very high styrene concentrations in water and was related to a high prevalence of subjective symptoms of the eyes, respiratory tract and skin. Similar exposures have been described in workers but not in subjects exposed at their residence. Various gastrointestinal symptoms were also observed in this population probably due to a local irritative effect. Note: RN: 0 (Irritants); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical); 100-42-5 (Styrene). ACCESS: Available through InterLibrary Loan. Analysis Of Chemical Contamination Within A Canal In A Mexican Border Colonia CITATION: Janel E. Owens and Emily D. Niemeyer. , Environmental Pollution, 2006. Vol. 140, No. 3, Pg. 506-515. ABSTRACT: This study examines urban pollution within Derechos Humanos, a colonia popular in Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico. General water quality indicators (coliform bacteria, total dissolved solids, ecologically relevant cations and anions), heavy metals (copper, lead, nickel, zinc, iron and cadmium), and volatile organic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, styrene, and dichlorobenzene and xylene isomers) were quantified within a wastewater canal running adjacent to the community. Water samples were collected at multiple sites along the banks of the canal and evidence of anthropogenic emissions existed at each sampling location. Sample site 2, approximately 10 m upstream of the colonia, contained both the widest range of hazardous pollutants and the greatest number exceeding US Environmental Protection Agency surface water standards. At each sampling location, high concentrations of total coliform (>10 super(4) colonies/100 mL sample), lead (ranging from 0.05 to 0.40 mg/L), nickel (levels from 0.21 to 1.45 mg/L), and benzene (up to 9.80 mg/L) were noted. This study quantifies widespread industrial and urban contamination within a canal located in a colonia (unplanned community) in Matamoros, Tamaulipas on the US-Mexico border. Note: TR: CS0631556. ACCESS: Available through InterLibrary Loan. Aquatic Toxicity Evaluation of Para-Methylstyrene CITATION: Kevin N. Baer, Robert L. Boeri, Timothy J. Ward, et al. , Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 2002/11. Vol. 53, No. 3, Pg. 432-438. ABSTRACT: The aquatic toxicity of para-methylstyrene was evaluated in acute toxicity studies using fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), daphnids (Daphnia magna), and freshwater green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum). Static tests were performed in sealed containers with no headspace to minimize loss of this volatile compound to the atmosphere. Concentrations of para-methylstyrene in test solutions were analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with a purge and trap module and flame ionization detection. Test results are based on mean, measured concentrations. para-Methylstyrene was moderately toxic to fathead minnows, daphnids, and green algae. The 96-h LC50 and NOEC for fathead minnows were 5.2 and 2.6 mg/L, respectively. The 48-h EC50 and NOEC for daphnids were 1.3 and 0.81 mg/L, respectively. The 72-h EC50 and NOEC for green algae were 2.3 and 0.53 mg/L, respectively; these effects were algistatic rather than algicidal. Para-Methylstyrene's potential impact on aquatic ecosystems is significantly mitigated by its volatility, an important fate process. ACCESS: Available through InterLibrary Loan. Assessment of The Aquatic and Terrestrial Toxicity Of Five Biodegradable Polymers CITATION: D. P. Arfsten, D. T. Burton, D. J. Fisher, et al. , Environmental Research, 2004. Vol. 94, No. 2, Pg. 198-210. ABSTRACT: Radiofrequency countermeasures (i.e., chaff) may be released by fighter jets during tactical countermeasures training. Chaff cartridges, pistons, and endcaps (i.e., chaff dispenser materials), all currently made of styrene, are also released into the environment. Accumulation of chaff dispenser materials in the environment is a concern of the Department of Defense. The US Navy is exploring the possibility of constructing degradable chaff dispenser components made of biodegradable polymers. Five polymers are being considered. Degradability and toxicity tests are two of several criteria being used to evaluate various available biodegradable options. Dissolution products from four of five polymers being considered were toxic to aquatic organisms with LC50s/LOELs ranging between 1.24 and 731.30mg total organic concentration/L. Supernatant from dissolving a 90:10 polyester amide/polyvinyl alcohol copolymer in water for 24h inhibited shoot growth of Brassica rappa and Lepidium sativum. Since our results were obtained using fractions of saturated degradable polymer solutions (1 or 10g/L), we conclude that the tested degradable polymers were of low toxicity to the seven aquatic organisms and two terrestrial plant species used in our assays. However, our characterization of the toxicity of these degradable polymers may not be applicable to all species or environmental situations. Information gained from these studies will be used for making decisions on which polymers should be used in the engineering of environmentally friendly chaff dispenser cartridges, pistons, and endcaps. Radiofrequency countermeasures (i.e., chaff) may be released by fighter jets during tactical countermeasures training. Chaff cartridges, pistons, and endcaps (i.e., chaff dispenser materials), all currently made of styrene, are also released into the environment. Accumulation of chaff dispenser materials in the environment is a concern of the Department of Defense. The US Navy is exploring the possibility of constructing degradable chaff dispenser components made of biodegradable polymers. Five polymers are being considered. Degradability and toxicity tests are two of several criteria being used to evaluate various available biodegradable options. Dissolution products from four of five polymers being considered were toxic to aquatic organisms with LC50s/LOELs ranging between 1.24 and 731.30mg total organic concentration/L. Supernatant from dissolving a 90:10 polyester amide/polyvinyl alcohol copolymer in water for 24h inhibited shoot growth of Brassica rappa and Lepidium sativum. Since our results were obtained using fractions of saturated degradable polymer solutions (1 or 10g/L), we conclude that the tested degradable polymers were of low toxicity to the seven aquatic organisms and two terrestrial plant species used in our assays. However, our characterization of the toxicity of these degradable polymers may not be applicable to all species or environmental situations. Information gained from these studies will be used for making decisions on which polymers should be used in the engineering of environmentally friendly chaff dispenser cartridges, pistons, and endcaps. ACCESS: Available through InterLibrary Loan. Bacterial Degradation of Styrene In Waste Gases Using a Peat Filter CITATION: M. Arnold, A. Reittu, A. Von Wright, et al. , Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 1997. Vol. 48, No. 6, Pg. 738-744. ABSTRACT: A biofiltration process was developed for styrene-containing off-gases using peat as filter material. The average styrene reduction ratio after 190 days of operation was 70% (max. 98%) and the mean styrene elimination capacity was 12 g m super(-3) h super(-1) (max. 30 g m super(-3) h super(-1)). Efficient styrene degradation required addition of nutrients to the peat, adjustment of the pH to a neutral level and efficient control of the humidity. Maintenance of the water balance was easier in a down-flow than in an up-flow process, the former consequently resulting in much better filtration efficiency. The optimum operation temperature was around 23 degree C, but the styrene removal was still satisfactory at 12 degree C. Seven different bacterial isolates belonging to the genera Tsukamurella, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas, Xanthomonas and an unidentified genus in the gamma group of the Proteobacteria isolated from the microflora of active peat filter material were capable of styrene degradation. The isolates differed in their capacity to decompose styrene to carbon dioxide and assimilate it to biomass. No toxic intermediate degradation products of styrene were detected in the filter outlet gas or in growing cultures of isolated bacteria. The use of these isolates in industrial biofilters is beneficial at low styrene concentrations and is safe from both the environmental and public health points of view. ACCESS: Available through InterLibrary Loan. Biodegradation of Styrene In Samples Of Natural Environments CITATION: M. H. Fu and M. Alexander. , Environmental Sciences & Technology (ES&T) 1992. Vol. 26, No. 8, Pg. 1540-1544. ABSTRACT: Results are reported from laboratory experiments to assess the fate of styrene in various types of environmental sample. There was rapid volatilization from shallow lake water, with 50 per cent loss in 1-3 h, but only 26 per cent was volatilized in 31 d from a 1.5 cm depth of soil. Microbial mineralization of styrene was rapid in sewage, in a mineral soil at pH 7.23, and in an organic soil. It was slower in aquifer sand, waterlogged soil, and a mineral soil at pH 4.87. Sorption on mineral and organic soils did not necessarily limit microbial transformation of styrene. Note: Publication focus: Experimental. ACCESS: Available through InterLibrary Loan. Chlorostyrenes In Fish And Sediment Samples From The River Elbe CITATION: K. Bester, S. Biselli, T. Ellerichmann, et al. , Chemosphere, 1998. Vol. 37, No. 912, Pg. 2459-2471. ABSTRACT: Chlorinated styrenes were identified in fish (bream) and sediment samples from the river Elbe. Four hexachlorostyrenes, four heptachlorostyrenes (concentrations in fish 1-10 ng/g wet weight) and octachlorostyrene (10-45 ng/g wet weight) were analysed. The gas chromatographic retention times and the electron impact (EI) mass spectra of the respective heptaand hexachloro congeners found in the environment as well as those of some synthesised compounds are presented and discussed. The comparison of the chromatograms from the samples in the upper part of the river with those from the estuary revealed a possible difference in the pattern of chlorostyrenes. Note: Special Issue: Chlorinated Dioxins and related Compounds 1996. ACCESS: Available through InterLibrary Loan. Considerations Necessary In Gathering Occurrence Data For Selected Unstable Compounds In The USEPA Unregulated Contaminant Candidate List In USEPA Method 526 CITATION: S. D. Winslow, B. Prakash, M. M. Domino, et al. , Environmental Science & Technology: ES&T, 2001. Vol. 35, No. 9, Pg. 1851-1858. ABSTRACT: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 526 was developed for the analysis of target analytes that are subject to degradation by hydrolysis. Two technical hurdles that had to be overcome were preservation of the target analytes and selection of a suitable solid-phase extraction material. The target analytes were diazinon, disulfoton, fonofos, terbufos, prometon, 1,2-diphenylhydrazine, nitrobenzene, acetochlor, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, and cyanazine. Diazolidinyl urea was used for the first time as a microbial inhibitor in an EPA drinking water method. Experiment confirmed antimicrobial agents containing copper or mercury salts increased hydrolysis degradation rates. Trisodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid salt was added to chelate metal ions that may increase hydrolysis rates. A pH 7 buffer of tris-(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris) and Tris hydrochloride was used to minimize rates of hydrolysis. The use of ascorbic acid prevented degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol, terbufos, fonofos, diazinon, and disulfoton due to residual chlorine. Samples were extracted using a styrene divinylbenzene solid-phase material and analyzed by capillary column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A 21-day storage stability study, together with precision and accuracy studies, showed that this method has suitable sensitivity, accuracy, precision, and ruggedness for use in the EPA's Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule drinking water occurrence survey. ACCESS: Available through InterLibrary Loan. Desorption and Biodegradation of Sorbed Styrene In Soil and Aquifer Solids CITATION: Min Hong Fu, Hilary Mayton and Martin Alexander. , Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 1994. Vol. 13, No. 5, Pg. 749-753. ABSTRACT: Not available. Note: FE: References: 14; illus. incl. 1 table; CY: GeoRef, Copyright 2006, American Geological Institute. ACCESS: Available through InterLibrary Loan. Determination of Triazine Pesticides and Related Compounds In Environmental Water By Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry CITATION: Akiko Tanabe and Kuniaki Kawata. , Analytical sciences : the international journal of the Japan Society for.Analytical Chemistry, 2004. Vol. 20, No. 1, Pg. 227-230. ABSTRACT: A method for the determination of 5 triazine herbicides and 12 degradation products in environmental water samples using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS) has been developed. The pesticides in water were extracted with two types of solid phase: a styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer and a graphitized carbon black. Desorption solvents for the extracted compounds were acetone for the styrenedivinylbenzene copolymer and methanol for the graphitized carbon black. Overall recoveries from ground water and river water ranged from 73% to 111%. The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.2 to 28 ng l(-1). This method was applied to several ground water samples. Note: RN: 0 (Herbicides); 0 (Triazines); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical). ACCESS: Available through InterLibrary Loan. Drinking Water Criteria Document For Styrene / Prepared By Environmental Criteria And Assessment Office, Office Of Health And Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency CITATION: United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office (Cincinnati, Ohio). , 1991. Note: SO: Cincinnati, OH: The Office, 1991; "Revised January 1991."; Prepared for Office of Drinking Water; "PB91-143370."; Includes bibliographical references. ACCESS: Available through InterLibrary Loan. Drinking Water Health Document on Styrene CITATION: Environmental Protection Agency. , Available from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, 1988. Vol. A01 in microfiche. Final Report no. ECAO-CIN-409, Pg. 294 ref. ABSTRACT: The Safe Drinking Water Act, as amended in 1986, requires the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to publish maximum contaminant level goals (MCLGs) and promulgate National Primary Drinking Water Regulations for each contaminant , which, in the judgment of the Administrator, may have an adverse effect on public health and which is known or anticipated to occur in public water systems. The Office of Drinking Water of the EPA has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on Styrene. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: physical chemical properties of styrene, toxicokinetics and human exposure to styrene, health effects of styrene in humans and animals, mechanisms of toxicological effect of styrene, and quantification of toxicological effects of styrene. Styrene is a clear, colorless liquid with a characteristic odor, molecular weight of 104.16, vapor pressure of 4.3 torr, and a water solubility of 320 mg/L. Animal studies indicate that distribution of absorbed styrene is widespread and rapid, but is fairly readily eliminated. Exposure estimates for styrene in drinking water (low-high) are 0-0.25 microg/L, in food 100 microg/kg, and in air 0-6,500 microg/cu m. The major source of exposure is from ambient and indoor air. When the animal bioassay data and the metabolic/genotoxicity data are considered, there is a reasonable basis for classifying styrene as having a ' sufficient ' level of carcinogenic evidence in animal test systems, but there are inadequate data to indicate that styrene is a human carcinogen. (Fish-PTT). ACCESS: Undetermined. Eco-Materials In Railway Recycling And Chemical Analysis CITATION: Ito, M Suzuki,M.Mifune, N. , Railway Technical Research Institute, Quarterly Reports, Vol. 40, No. 4. ABSTRACT: In this paper, organic materials are studied for environmental purposes. First, recycled materials, such as anti-vibration blocks made of SBR (styrene-butadiene rubber) track pads are used for reducing vibrations of the railroad. It has been found that low density and porous rubber blocks have suitable properties for reducing vibration and exhibit good performance. Second, an elemental analysis was carried out to evaluate environmental consciousness and development of desirable materials in the future. Based on this result, desirable concepts of future materials, such as making simple components and reducing heavy materials, are proposed. Note: Description: p. 199-203; Figures(12); References(6); TRIS Files: RRIS. ACCESS: Unknown. ONLINE AT: http://www.rtri.or.jp/infoce/qr_E.html Ecotoxicity Hazard Assessment of Styrene CITATION: J. R. Cushman, G. A. Rausina, G. Cruzan, et al. , Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 1997. Vol. 37, No. 2, Pg. 173-180. ABSTRACT: The ecotoxicity of styrene was evaluated in acute toxicity studies of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), daphnids (Daphnia magna), amphipods (Hyalella azteca), and freshwater green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), and a subacute toxicity study of earthworms (Eisenia foetida). Stable exposure levels were maintained in the studies with fathead minnows, daphnids, and amphipods using sealed, flowthrough, serial dilution systems and test vessels. The algae were evaluated in a sealed, static system. The earthworms were exposed in artificial soil which was renewed after 7 days. Styrene concentrations in water and soil were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection following extraction into hexane. Test results are based on measured concentrations. Styrene was moderately toxic to fathead minnows, daphnids, and amphipods: fathead minnow: LC sub(50) (96 hr), 10 mg/liter, and NOEC, 4.0 mg/liter; daphnids: EC sub(50) (48 hr), 4.7 mg/liter, and NOEC, 1.9 mg/liter; amphipods: LC sub(50) (96 hr), 9.5 mg/liter, and NOEC, 4.1 mg/liter. Styrene was highly toxic to green algae: EC sub(50) (96 hr), 0.72 mg/liter, and NOEC, 0.063 mg/liter; these effects were found to be algistatic rather than algicidal. Styrene was slightly toxic to earthworms: LC sub(50) (14 days), 120 mg/kg, and NOEC, 44 mg/kg. There was no indication of a concern for chronic toxicity based on these studies. Styrene's potential impact on aquatic and soil environments is significantly mitigated by its volatility and biodegradability. ACCESS: Available through Interlibrary Loan. Effect Of Environmental Pollutants and Their Metabolites On A Soil Mycobacterium CITATION: B. L. Burback, J. J. Perry and L. E. Rudd. , Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 1994. Vol. 41, No. 1, Pg. 134-136. ABSTRACT: The relative toxicity of seven major groundwater pollutants (benzene, chlorobenzene, propylbenzene, ethylbenzene, trichloroethylene, toluene, and styrene) and their metabolites to a soil Mycobacterium (Mycobacterium vaccae strain JOB-5) that can catabolize all of these pollutants was determined. The metabolites of chlorobenzene, styrene and trichloroethylene degradation (4-chlorophenol, styrene oxide, and 2,2,2-trichloroethanol, respectively) were less toxic to M. vaccae than was their parent compound. The pollutants propylbenzene, ethylbenzene and benzene were less toxic than their metabolites (4propylphenol, 4-ethylphenol, and phenol). Metabolites were also examined for their ability to interfere with the biodegradation of selected groundwater pollutants. The metabolites of ethylbenzene, propylbenzene and chlorobenzene biotransformation by M. vaccae were found to adversely affect biodegradation by M. vaccae. Toluene degradation by M. vaccae was inhibited by 4-chlorophenol, 4-ethylphenol and 4-propylphenol at 0.2 mM, 0.4 mM, and 0.4 mM, respectively. ACCESS: Available through Interlibrary Loan. Enhanced Microbial Degradation of Styrene In Shallow Soils and Ground Water; Groundwater Contamination CITATION: Paul Dean Kuhlmeier. , IAHS-AISH Publication, 1989. Vol. 185, Pg. 189-197. Note: CD: PIHSD9; FE: References: 6; illus. incl. 4 tables; CY: GeoRef, Copyright 2006, American Geological Institute.

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@inproceedings{2009StyreneRU, title={Styrene Resin Used in Cured in Place Pipe Rehabilitation May Have a Significant Localized Ecotoxicity, Despite Fast General Biodegradation}, author={}, year={2009} }