The antibody response to vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) with FSME-Immun Inject (Immuno AG/Baxter) was studied in 535 persons, mainly adults, attending a vaccination centre in Stockholm, Sweden. Emphasis was laid on long-term follow-up. Antibody activity was measured by three different serological test systems: a commercial ELISA kit, a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and a neutralization test (RFFIT). The neutralization test proved to be the most sensitive assay for the detection of the vaccine response, which was demonstrable in the majority of vaccinees (>90% after three and >98% after four and five vaccinations, respectively). ELISA and HI were less sensitive for antibody measurement during primary immunization. Neutralizing antibody activity persisted prior to the third dose in 77% of the vaccinees and prior to the fourth to sixth doses in 89-95% of the vaccinees. ELISA activity, but no neutralizing activity, was found in some individuals. Based on our data and previous experience of vaccine failures after two doses, a more condensed three-dose vaccination schedule may be advantageous and ought to be tested. The persistence of neutralizing antibodies justifies further studies of the antibody responses after the fourth dose for periods beyond the recommended 3-year booster intervals.