Although the neurotoxic effects of Pb are well documented, the subcellular mechanisms of this action in the central nervous system are not fully understood. The present work examines some neurochemical parameters in discrete brain areas of pups whose mothers were intoxicated via drinking water with lead (300 mg/L), from day 1 of pregnancy until postnatal day 12. Lead intoxication produced a significant reduction in the activity of the enzymes alkaline phosphatase and ATP-ase in the brain. Furthermore, the levels of adenine nucleotides were significantly altered by treatment, the striatum being the area more affected, whereas lead did not vary the levels of ATP, ADP and AMP in the hypothalamus. On the other hand, there was a general decrease in neurotransmitter levels in all areas, specially in the hippocampus. These data suggest that gestational and lactational exposure to low dose of lead could produce neurochemical changes in discrete brain areas which can be responsible for the neurophysiological and behavioral changes described in lead-intoxicated animals.