Study of the Pioneer anomaly: A problem set

@article{Turyshev2005StudyOT,
  title={Study of the Pioneer anomaly: A problem set},
  author={Slava G. Turyshev and Michael Martin Nieto and John David Anderson},
  journal={American Journal of Physics},
  year={2005},
  volume={73},
  pages={1033-1044}
}
Analysis of the radio-metric tracking data from the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft at distances between 20 and 70 astronomical units from the Sun has consistently indicated the presence of an anomalous, small, and constant Doppler frequency drift. The drift is a blueshift, uniformly changing at the rate of (5.99±0.01)×10−9Hz∕s. The signal also can be interpreted as a constant acceleration of each spacecraft of (8.74±1.33)×10−8cm∕s2 directed toward the Sun. This interpretation has become known as… 
The Pioneer Anomaly
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Analysis of the radio tracking data from the Pioneer 10/11 spacecraft has consistently indicated the presence of an anomalous small Doppler frequency drift. The drift can be interpreted as being due
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The radio‐metric Doppler tracking data from the Pioneer 10/11 spacecraft, from between 20–70 AU, yields an unambiguous and independently confirmed anomalous blue shift drift of at = (2.92 ± 0.44) ×
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