OBJECTIVE To evaluated the levels of arsenic (As) in blood and urine among general population in China and analyze its influencing factors. METHODS A total of 18 120 subjects from general population aged 6-60 years were recruited from 24 districts in 8 provinces in eastern, central and western China mainland from 2009 to 2010, by cluster random sampling method. Blood samples and urine samples were collected, the information of the life-style was collected by questionnaire.Inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry was applied to test the As level in the samples, and the distribution of As in blood and urine for different ages, genders, areas and life habits were then analyzed. RESULTS The geometric mean (GM) of blood As concentration among general population was 2.33 µg/L;the GM of blood As in male (2.35 µg/L) was higher than and female (2.30 µg/L) (Z = -1.42, P < 0.05); from eastern, central to western China, the blood As level were 2.94, 1.30 and 0.98 µg/L (χ(2) = 643.22, P < 0.05) , respectively; the GM in smokers (2.84 µg/L) was higher than non-smokers (2.27) (Z = -6.28, P < 0.05) ;the seafood consumer had a higher blood As level (2.59 µg/L) than people not consuming seafood (1.47 µg/L) (Z = -23.68, P < 0.05). The urine As level of the whole population was 13.72 µg/L;while its GM in male (14.10 µg/L) was higher than female (13.33 µg/L) (Z = -3.94, P < 0.05); the values from eastern, central to western China were 14.14, 16.02 and 9.57 µg/L (χ(2) = 353.89, P < 0.05), respectively;the level in smokers (16.06 µg/L) was higher than nonsmokers (13.70 µg/L) (Z = -2.63, P < 0.05); the level in seafood consumers (14.82 µg/L) was higher than people not consuming seafood (10.99 µg/L) (Z = -3.20, P < 0.05). The blood As level had a positive correlation with urine As level (correlation coefficient:0.285, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION The As level in blood and urine varied by gender and area among general population in China, and related to life-styles. There was a positive correlation between As level in blood and that in urine.