Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is endemic in many regions of the world, including Brazil, and has been associated to several immunological manifestations such as arthritis, uveitis, dermatitis and Sjögren’s syndrome. This study was intended to evaluate the frequency of autoantibodies in patients infected with HTLV-1 and manifesting keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). HTLV-1 patients with KCS, enrolled in a reference ambulatory of the city of Salvador, were tested for autoantibodies such as antinuclear antibodies, rheumatoid factor, anti-SSA/Ro and anti-SSB/La. Two comparison groups were also included: (a) HTLV-1 patients without KCS and (b) seronegative patients with KCS. Correlation of proviral load (PVL) in HTLV-1 patients with presence or absence of KCS was also assessed. No autoantibodies were detected in HTLV-1 patients with KCS. The PVL of HTLV-1 patients was higher in patients with KCS without other clinical manifestations customarily associated to HTLV-1. In conclusion, in this study, no changes were observed in humoral immunity concerning production of certain autoantibodies in HTLV-1-infected patients with KCS, which suggests that other mechanisms may be involved in the pathogenesis of this manifestation. Additionally, PVL may be a marker of KCS development in these patients.