OBJECTIVES Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with insulin resistance and obesity. Recent studies have shown that plasma omentin-1 levels decrease with obesity. Currently, no data exists on the relative correlation between omentin-1 with other adipokines or the expression and regulation of omentin-1 in the serum of women with PCOS. The objective of this study is to evaluate the role of omentin-1 levels or omentin-1 /adipokines ratio in the serum of women with PCOS compared with matched control subjects. METHODS The study involved 60 patients with PCOS and 30 women without PCOS who were used as controls. To examine the relationship between fasting serum omentin-1 and serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), resistin, ghrelin, leptin RBP-4 and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) levels in infertile PCOS and non-PCOS subjects. Also, insulin and other hormones were measured in both groups. All these factors were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS From the total of 60 cases, there was a significant increase (p<0.001) in PCOS patients when compared to the control group in fasting serum, serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), resistin, leptin RBP-4, tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) levels and insulin. A significant decrease in omentin-1 and ghrelin (p<0.001) was observed. The results also showed that 93.33% and 98.30% in PCOS patients had abnormal omentin1: Insulin ratio and omentin1: Resistin ratio respectively according to the cut off values ≤27.42 and ≤31.35. Moreover, 81.67% of PCOS patients had abnormal omentin1:IL-6 ratio according to the cut of value (≤66.09). CONCLUSION This is the first time the role of plasma omentin1 has been investigated with respect to its implication in PCOS. Usually, LH/FSH ratio and FAI (ratio of total testosterone to SHBG) are the important factors used for the diagnosis of PCOS in all previous literature, but none of them referred to the parameters discussed in this report. Also, the percentage of sensitivity and the difference between range of these parameters in PCOS patients and the controls may give a different perspective in trying to understand the etiology of PCOS. Therefore, these parameters may be used for future diagnosis of PCOS. This study also suggested that omentin/resistin ratio may play a crucial paracrine or endocrine role in modulating insulin sensitivity.