To observe the change of morphology and neuropeptide in the spinal neurons in order to clarify the functional state after injury of peripheral nerves is especially in the late stage. Sciatic nerves were cut with their proximal segments in the preparation of a model of peripheral nerve injury. Combination of horseradish peroxidase retrograde tracing immunohistochemistry and computer image analysis the changes in the morphometry of the perikarya of ventral horn neurons of the spinal cord, the quantitative changes of substance P (SP). Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in dorsal horn and CGRP and choline acetyransferase (CHAT) in ventral horn of the spinal cord were examed. The results showd: (1) At the 3rd week after injury, swollen perikarya of the ventral horn neurons were observed, subseauently the swelling of perikarya was decreased tile the 6th week the neurons recovered to their normal size. At the 12th week the neurons were generally stable in their size, shortening of the dendrites was seen in 27% of the neurons. (2) The dendrites of the neurons progressively contracted till at the 12th week 53% of them were degenerated. The results of the 24th week were similar to the that at the 12th week. (3) CGRP in the ventral horn of the spinal cord was elevated to the highest point after 1 week of injury, that lasting for 4 weeks and 8 weeks later, the lever of CGRP returned to normal. From 20th to 24th week, there was no obvious changes of CHAT in the ventral horn of the spinal cord during observation. (4) SP went to the lowest point in the dorsal horn during 2-6 weeks, then recovered slowly, and beiny normal again after 16 weeks, however, CGRP was changed slightly. The results indicated that although a series of degenerating changes occurred in the neurons of the spinal cord during the late peripheral nerve injury, but the functional activity of the central meurons still was maintained at a certain level.