Development and optimization of the Suna trap as a tool for mosquito monitoring and control
Entomological survey was conducted to know the breeding habitat preference of the forest breeder malaria vector Anopheles baimaii, known earlier as An. dirus species D in the northeastern region of India. Breeding potential of the vector in forest areas was found to be high in water stored in jungle pool (69.84%) followed by elephant footprints with clear water (39.13%) and with turbid water (26.19%), whereas in forest fringe areas, the vector breeding was more prominent in elephant footprints: 65.11% in clear water and 62.5% in turbid water. Although other habitats had shown only low breeding of the vector, all types of habitats were positively correlated with malaria occurrence. Cattle hoof marks (r = 0.998) and elephant footprint (turbid; r = 0.999) explained nearly the same amount of variance. It was observed that deforestation as well as elephant habitat-type destruction had engendered man–elephant conflicts intensively in fringe areas. Seasonal abundance pattern of this vector was found to vary in forest and forest fringe areas in relation to different habitats. Seasonal abundance of An. baimaii was significantly different in different habitats. The Tukey post hoc comparisons indicated that the abundance of An. baimaii in different habitats was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in monsoon season than that of premonsoon and postmonsoon seasons. No significant difference was observed between premonsoon and postmonsoon seasons. The findings therefore will eventually help to predict transmission of malaria in targeted area and in formulating an improved malaria control program in the northeastern region of India.