A comparison was made of the effects of i.v. inoculation of trinitrophenyl-(TNP) conjugated syngeneic cells on the subsequent in vitro generation of TNP-reactive effector cell activity and on the in vivo development of TNP-contact sensitivity. The administration of syngeneic TNP-conjugated spleen cells before 2,4,6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene (TNCB) painting abolished the capability of animals to develop TNP-contact sensitivity. In contrast, the same treatment resulted in an appreciable augmentation in the generation of TNP-reactive cytotoxic effector cell activity as measured by subsequent in vitro sensitization with TNP-conjugated cells. The possible mechanisms by which enhanced TNP-reactive cytotoxic effector cell activity was elicited under conditions identical to those that induced unresponsiveness for TNP-contact sensitivity are discussed.