Studies on Pasteurella pestis in fleas. VI. The laboratory culture of Xenopsylla vexabilis hawaiiensis Jordan, 1932.

  title={Studies on Pasteurella pestis in fleas. VI. The laboratory culture of Xenopsylla vexabilis hawaiiensis Jordan, 1932.},
  author={H. Stark and L. Kartman},
  journal={The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene},
  volume={6 4},
  • H. Stark, L. Kartman
  • Published 1957
  • Biology, Medicine
  • The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
Summary Large numbers of Xenopsylla vexabilis hawaiiensis were needed to carry out tests of its efficiency as a plague vector. Efficient culture of the Hawaiian flea was accomplished in white enameled buckets containing a housed host rat together with a larval substrate consisting of sand and powdered dog pellets (Friskies). The pupae were kept at a temperature of from 23° to 27°C. and a relative humidity of from 93 per cent to 100 per cent. These conditions differed from those required by… Expand
13 Citations
Effects of temperature on the transmission of Yersinia Pestis by the flea, Xenopsylla Cheopis, in the late phase period
It is suggested that temperature does not significantly effect the per flea efficiency of Y. pestis flea-borne transmission, but that temperature is likely to influence the dynamics of Yersinia pestis transmission, perhaps by affecting persistence of the bacteria in the flea gut or by influencing flea survival. Expand
Notes on the fleas Xenopsylla vexabilis Jordan, 1925 (Pulicidae: Siphonaptera) in Vietnam as related to the problem of anthropogenic plague foci
The new data do not support the concept of coevolution of the recent epizootic association Rattus exulans-Xenopsylla vexabilis-Yersinia pestis, which was assumed to have played an important role in the introduction of the flea to the Pacific islands. Expand
Studies of Vector Competency and Efficiency of North American Fleas for Yersinia pestis: State of the Field and Future Research Needs
This review concludes that numerous flea species, including the oriental rat flea Xenopsylla cheopis, which was the focus of the early classical studies on blocked flea transmission, are capable of “early-phase” transmission during the first few days after becoming infected and before a complete blockage can form. Expand
Demonstration of Early-Phase Transmission of Yersinia pestis by the Mouse Flea, Aetheca wagneri (Siphonaptera: Ceratophylidae), and Implications for the Role of Deer Mice as Enzootic Reservoirs
Early-phase vector efficiency of Aetheca wagneri Baker, a common flea species infesting deer mice, is evaluated to determine the likelihood that Y. pestis could be spread mouse to mouse by this species and to support the notion of an independent deer mouse–A. Expand
Evidence for the involvement of an alternate rodent host in the dynamics of introduced plague in prairie dogs.
It is speculated that grasshopper mice help spread Y. pestis during epizootics through their ability to survive infection, harbour prairie dog fleas and, during their wide-ranging movements, transport infected fleas among burrows, which functionally connects prairieDog coteries that would otherwise be socially distinct. Expand
Source of Host Blood Affects Prevalence of Infection and Bacterial Loads of Yersinia pestis in Fleas
It is demonstrated that both prevalence of infection with a virulent strain of Y. pestis and bacterial loads in rock squirrel fleas (Oropsylla montana) are affected by host-associated blood factors. Expand
Poor vector competence of fleas and the evolution of hypervirulence in Yersinia pestis.
It is shown that the infectivity of Y. pestis to its most proficient vector, the rat flea Xenopsylla cheopis, and subsequent transmission efficiency are both low, suggesting that the rapidly fatal gram-negative sepsis that typifies plague is a consequence of the high threshold bacteremia level that must be attained to complete the transmission cycle. Expand
Early-Phase Transmission of Yersinia pestis by Unblocked Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) Is as Efficient as Transmission by Blocked Fleas
It is demonstrated that a single infected and unblocked X. cheopis can infect a susceptible host as early as 1 d p.i, and early-phase transmission by un Blocked fleas in the current study was at least as efficient as transmission by blocked flea in a previously published study using the same colony of fleas and same bacterial strain. Expand
The evolution of flea-borne transmission in Yersinia pestis.
Transmission by fleabite is a recent evolutionary adaptation that distinguishes Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and all other enteric bacteria. The very closeExpand
Temporal Dynamics of Early-Phase Transmission of Yersinia pestis by Unblocked Fleas: Secondary Infectious Feeds Prolong Efficient Transmission by Oropsylla montana (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae)
The data indicated that the duration of time over which O. montana reliably transmitted plague bacteria was longer than previously thought, and this may help to explain rapid rates of epizootic spread. Expand